San Pedro, Argentina
San Pedro, Argentina

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Geiser D.M.,Pennsylvania State University | Aoki T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Bacon C.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Baker S.E.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | And 62 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2013

In this letter, we advocate recognizing the genus Fusarium as the sole name for a group that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine, and basic research. This phylogenetically guided circumscription will free scientists from any obligation to use other genus names, including teleomorphs, for species nested within this clade, and preserve the application of the name Fusarium in the way it has been used for almost a century. Due to recent changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this is an urgent matter that requires community attention. The alternative is to break the longstanding concept of Fusarium into nine or more genera, and remove important taxa such as those in the F. solani species complex from the genus, a move we believe is unnecessary. Here we present taxonomic and nomenclatural proposals that will preserve established research connections and facilitate communication within and between research communities, and at the same time support strong scientific principles and good taxonomic practice. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society.


O'Donnell K.,National United University | Sink S.,National United University | Scandiani M.M.,Laboratorio Agricola Rio Parana | Lenzi L.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 8 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2010

Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean has become a serious constraint to the production of this crop in North and South America. Phenotypic and multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses, as well as pathogenicity experiments, have demonstrated that four morphologically and phylogenetically distinct fusaria can induce soybean SDS. Published molecular diagnostic assays for the detection and identification of these pathogens have reported these pathogens as F. solani, F. solani f. sp. glycines, or F. solani f. sp. phaseoli, primarily because the species limits of these four pathogens were only recently resolved. In light of the recent discovery that soybean SDS and Phaseolus and mung bean root rot (BRR) are caused by four and two distinct species, respectively, multilocus DNA sequence analyses were conducted to assess whether any of the published molecular diagnostic assays were species-specific. Comparative DNA sequence analyses of the soybean SDS and BRR pathogens revealed that highly conserved regions of three loci were used in the design of these assays, and therefore none were species-specific based on our current understanding of species limits within the SDS-BRR clade. Prompted by this finding, we developed a high-throughput multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay which accurately differentiated the soybean SDS and two closely related Phaseolus and mung BRR pathogens based on nucleotide polymorphism within the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region rDNA and two anonymous intergenic regions designated locus 51 and 96. The single-well diagnostic assay, employing flow cytometry and a novel fluorescent microsphere array, was validated by independent multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis of a 65 isolate design panel. The MLGT assay was used to reproducibly type a total of 262 soybean SDS and 9 BRR pathogens. The validated MLGT array provides a unique molecular diagnostic for the accurate identification and molecular surveillance of these economically important plant pathogens.


Scandiani M.M.,Laboratorio Agricola Rio Parana | Scandiani M.M.,National University of Rosario | Carmona M.A.,University of Buenos Aires | Luque A.G.,National University of Rosario | And 9 more authors.
Tropical Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

The main objectives of this work were to isolate and identify the causal agents of sudden death syndrome (SDS) from samples collected in different Argentinean localities, to quantify its incidence, and to estimate yield losses. Two hundred and ffteen roots from plants with typical SDS foliar symptoms were analyzed. In order to perform pathogenicity tests, two bioassays were conducted in the greenhouse. Yield losses were estimated in a feld trial located in Pergamino by quantifcation and comparison of yield of paired samples. Thirty-six percent of total roots (78 roots) presented signs of Fusarium, compatible with signs caused by SDS. Morphological studies allowed the identifcation of 35 isolates as F. tucumaniae and 18 as F. virguliforme. Other eight isolates could not be identifed. All isolates that were inoculated reproduced typical SDS foliar symptoms. Signifcant differences were observed between healthy and diseased plants for 1000-grain weight and between potential and real yield (p<0.05). Average yield loss was 1514 kg/ha (range 192-3770 kg/ha). These results corroborated the distribution and predominance of F. tucumaniae and F. viguliforme in the area under study and its destructive potential. © Brazilian Phytopathological Society.


Scandiani M.M.,Laboratorio Agricola Rio Parana | Scandiani M.M.,National University of Rosario | Ruberti D.S.,Laboratorio Agricola Rio Parana | Giorda L.M.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 6 more authors.
Tropical Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Fusarium tucumaniae and F. virguliforme are the primary etiological agents of sudden-death syndrome (SDS) of soybean in Argentina and the United States, respectively. Five isolates of F. tucumaniae and four isolates of F. virguliforme were tested for relative aggressiveness to soybean, using a toothpick inoculation method and two versions of a soil infestation inoculation method. Partially resistant soybean cultivar RA629 and susceptible cultivar A6445RG were inoculated separately with each of the nine isolates. Two experiments for each inoculation method were performed. Analysis of variance identified a significant three-way interaction of soybean cultivar*experiment*SDS pathogen (P = 0.01) using the different methods. When the two soil infestation methods were used, F. virguliforme was more aggressive than F. tucumaniae; however, when using the toothpick method, isolates of F. virguliforme and F. tucumaniae were equally aggressive. Although all three methods discriminated levels of partial resistance of the genotypes to SDS, results of the present study indicated that soil inoculations with sorghum infested grain represent the best method for evaluating soybean cultivar resistance to SDS. The existence of interactions among the host, pathogen and environmental conditions highlights the need for additional studies to improve the reproducibility of tests for screening soybean germplasm for resistance to SDS. © By the Brazilian Phytopathological Society.


Aoki T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Tanaka F.,Hokkaido Research Organization | Suga H.,Gifu University | Hyakumachi M.,Gifu University | And 2 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2012

We report on the phenotypic, molecular phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of a novel azuki bean (Vigna angularis) root-rot (BRR) pathogen from Hokkaido, Japan, which formally is described herein as Fusarium azukicola. This species can be distinguished phenotypically from the other Phaseolus/Vigna BRR and soybean sudden-death syndrome (SDS) pathogens by the production of wider and longer four-septate conidia cultured on SNA. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of four anonymous intergenic loci, a portion of the translation elongation factor (EF-1α) gene and the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS rDNA) strongly support the genealogical exclusivity of F. azukicola with respect to the other soybean SDS and BRR pathogens within Clade 2 of the F. solani species complex (FSSC). Evolutionary relationships of F. azukicola to other members of the SDS-BRR clade, however, are unresolved by phylogenetic analyses of the individual and combined datasets, with the exception of the IGS rDNA partition, which strongly supports it as a sister of the soybean SDS pathogen F. brasiliense. A multilocus genotyping assay is updated to include primer probes that successfully distinguish F. azukicola from the other soybean SDS and BRR pathogens. Results of a pathogenicity experiment reveal that the F. azukicola isolates are able to induce root-rot symptoms on azuki bean, mung bean (Vigna radiata), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max), as well as typical SDS foliar symptoms on soybean. Our hypothesis is that F. azukicola evolved in South America and was introduced to Hokkaido, Japan, on azuki bean but its possible route of introduction remains unknown. © 2012 by The Mycological Society of America.


Aoki T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Scandiani M.M.,Laboratorio Agricola Rio Parana | O'Donnell K.,Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research Unit
Mycoscience | Year: 2012

A novel soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) pathogen from Argentina and Brazil is formally described herein as Fusarium crassistipitatum based on detailed phenotypic analyses of macro- and microscopic characters and phylogenetic analyses of multilocus DNA sequence data. Fusarium crassistipitatum can be distinguished from the other soybean SDS and bean (Phaseolus/Vigna) root rot pathogens (BRR) phenotypically by the production of yellowish colonies on PDA; and tall, stout, and mostly unbranched conidiophores with a thick-walled base, which form multiseptate conidia apically. Phylogenetic species recognition based on genealogical concordance of a six-gene dataset strongly supported the reciprocal monophyly of F. crassistipitatum with respect to the other SDS and BRR pathogens. Isolates of F. crassistipitatum were able to induce typical SDS foliar and root rot symptoms on soybean that were indistinguishable from those caused by three other SDS pathogens (i. e., F. virguliforme, F. brasiliense, and F. tucumaniae) on susceptible cultivars A-6445RG and N-4613RG in a pathogenicity experiment. © 2011 The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer.


Scandiani M.M.,Laboratorio Agricola Rio Parana | Aoki T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Luque A.G.,National University of Rosario | Carmona M.A.,University of Buenos Aires | O'Donnell K.,1815 iversity St
Plant Disease | Year: 2010

Of the four fusaria that have been shown to cause soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), field surveys indicate that Fusarium tucumaniae is the most important and genetically diverse SDS pathogen in Argentina. Although none of the SDS fusaria have been shown to produce perithecia in nature, a heterothallic sexual cycle has been demonstrated for F. tucumaniae via laboratory crosses. Herein we report on the discovery of perithecia of F. tucumaniae on soybean in Argentina. Ascospores derived from these perithecia gave rise to colonies that produced sporodochial conidia diagnostic of F. tucumaniae. Sporodochial conidia were longer and narrower than those produced by the other SDS fusaria; these conidia also possessed a diagnostic acuate apical cell and a distinctly foot-shaped basal cell. Sixteen strains derived from single ascospores subjected to a validated multilocus genotyping assay (MLGT) for SDS species determination, together with 16 conidial isolates from two sites where teleomorphs were collected, independently confirmed the morphological identification as F. tucumaniae. This study represents the first authentic report of sexual reproduction by a soybean SDS pathogen in nature.


Havis N.D.,SRUC | Gorniak K.,SRUC | Carmona M.A.,University of Buenos Aires | Formento A.N.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2014

The fungus Ramularia collo-cygni B. Sutton & J. M. Waller (Rcc) was identified as the causal agent of this emerging disease on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) based on symptoms and signs on leaves and attributes of the fungus. The common name given to the disease was "necrotic sprinkling." This disease was found for the first time on barley in fields of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in 2001, with severities ranging from 60 to 100% (2). During the spring of 2012, the disease spread throughout most barley growing areas of the Pampean region, affecting almost all varieties of barley in the Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos, and Santa Fe provinces. The disease showed typical symptoms of small, brown spots on leaves, sheaths, and awns, and caused rapid loss of green leaf area and significant economic damage. The diagnosis of this disease is difficult by conventional techniques and has caused some confusion. In order to obtain appropriate information about the incidence of this pathogen in the most important barley growing region of Argentina, as well as to confirm its presence on seed, 39 seed samples containing 200 seeds each and eight leaf samples were analyzed using a real-time PCR diagnostic test (4). Thirty-five of the 37 seed samples had Rcc DNA levels above the minimum detection level (0.13 pg DNA). Ramularia has been described as a seedborne fungus previously (1) and seed infection could hasten the spread of the fungus to new geographically distinct areas. Moreover, leaf samples were microscopically assessed for conidophore presence and then ground for DNA extraction. Rcc DNA was detected by PCR in all eight leaf samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report about molecular detection of R. collo-cygni in barley seed of harvested samples from Argentina. Seeds infected/infested may also lead to new strains of the fungus arriving in barley fields and provide a source of inoculum for future epidemics (3). © The American Phytopathological Society.


Barros G.G.,National University of Rio Cuarto | Zanon M.S.A.,National University of Rio Cuarto | Chiotta M.L.,National University of Rio Cuarto | Reynoso M.M.,National University of Rio Cuarto | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the main crops in Argentina. Most of the studies of pathogenicity in the Fusarium graminearum complex have focused on strains isolated from wheat and maize, and there is little information on strains isolated from soybean. Our objective in the present study was to compare the pathogenicity among soybean isolates of different phylogenetic species within the Fusarium graminearum complex on soybean seedlings under controlled conditions. Six strains representing three different phylogenetic species (F. graminearum, F. meridionale and F. cortaderiae) were identified by partial sequencing of the Translation Elongation Factor -1α gene (TEF-1) and evaluated for pathogenicity. All six strains reduced emergence, mainly by causing pre-emergence damping-off, seedling height and root dry weight and produced abnormal seedlings. The mean disease severity averaged across all isolates was approximately 3.0 in a 0-4 rating scale where 0 = healthy seedling and 4 = dead seedling. Significant differences in pathogenicity were observed among F. graminearum, F. meridionale and F. cortaderiae. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that different phylogenetic species within the Fusarium graminearum complex isolated from soybean are pathogenic under controlled conditions to soybean seedlings in Argentina. The present study demonstrates for the first time the pathogenic effect of F. meridionale on soybean in Argentina. © 2013 KNPV.

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