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Karachi, Pakistan

Nisa A.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Zahra N.,Laboratories Complex | Yasha N.B.,University of Punjab
International Food Research Journal

Aflatoxins are harmful and most carcinogenic substances known which may affect rice quality to greater extent. Aflatoxin concentrations in local and import quality Brown Rice samples were analysed for determination of quality difference with respect to the limits set by European Commission i.e.10 ppb. A total of 50 samples of local and import quality brown rice were obtained from market for analysis using Thin Layer Chromatography. 92% local brown rice samples were contaminated, 56% were contaminated above permissible limits; whereas, 36% were below permissible limits. In import quality only 48% of samples were contaminated where 44% were below and only 4% were above permissible limits. The results of aflatoxin concentration analysis revealed that import quality of rice is quite improved as compared to local quality rice. Local quality brown rice samples can be unsafe and dangerous for human health due to its lethal effects. © All Rights Reserved. Source

Mustafa S.,University of Karachi | Perveen S.,Laboratories Complex | Khan A.,University of Karachi
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society

In this study, seventeen urea derivatives, including the five new derivatives N-mesityl-N'-(3-methylphenyl)urea (2), N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-N'- -(3-methylphenyl)urea (4), N-mesityl-N'-(4-methylphenyl)urea (6), N-(1,3-benzothiazol- 2-yl)-N'-(3-methylphenyl)urea (9) and N-(2-methylphenyl)-2- oxo-1- -pyrrolidinecarboxamide (15), were synthesized by reacting ortho-, meta- and para-tolyl isocyanate with primary and secondary amines using a previously reported method. All the series 1-17 were subjected to urease, β-glucuronidase and snake venom phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibition assays. The ranges of inhibition of urease, β-glucuronidase and phosphodiesterase enzymes were 0.30-45.3, 4.9-44.9 and 1.2-46.4 %, respectively. Moreover, an effect of these compounds on a prostate cancer cell line was observed. The new compound N-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-N'-(3-methylphenyl)urea (9) showed in vitro anticancer activity with an IC50 value of 78.28±1.2 μM. All the compounds were characterized by state of art spectroscopic techniques.©2014 SCS. Source

Qurat-Ul-Ain,University of Punjab | Baig S.,Laboratories Complex | Saleem M.,University of Punjab
Pakistan Journal of Botany

The production of cellulases by Aspergillus niger in submerged fermentation with two substrates rice husk and saw dust was compared. The highest cellulase activity was observed at 3rd day in pretreated rice husk media (13.702±0.1) and at 2nd day in pretreated saw dust media (9.683±0.2). The optimum temperature of the enzyme was observed to be around 40°C. It was found that the enzyme activity has a broad pH range between 3-9 and 40% of the original activity was retained after heat treatment at 90°C for 15 min. Maximum cellulase activity obtained when 2.5% substrate was used above this concentration no regular increase in enzyme activity was noticed. Among two lignocellulosic wastes tested in this study rice husk prove to be a good substrate for cellulase enzyme production by the organism Aspergillus niger. Source

Perveen S.,Laboratories Complex | Fatima N.,University of Karachi | Khan K.M.,University of Karachi | Khan A.,University of Karachi | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan

A number of carbamates derivatives 1-12 were synthesized and evaluated for their antioxidant, urease inhibition, anticancer, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. N-Ethylamine-N′, N′-diethyl carbamate (4), showed remarkable metal chelating capability (RSA 98.8%) higher than the standard. Another compound, N-3-benzoic-,N′,N′-diethyl carbamate (8) also exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging assay (RSA 78.7%). Source

Ali Khan F.,Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology | Abdeltawab A.A.,King Saud University | Abdeltawab A.A.,Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute | Al-Deyab S.S.,King Saud University | And 6 more authors.
Life Science Journal

The studied were carried out for the comparative evaluation of physiochemical and GCMS analysis of sour and sweet oranges peel oil of Pakistan. The physiochemical analysis of sour oranges were shown that moisture (%), density, iodine value (g/100g), saponification value (mg/g), peroxide value (mg eq/kg), free fatty acid value (%) 0.34 ±0.22, 0.92 ± 0.16, 100 ± 0.44, 171 ± 0.32, 35.2 ± 0.12 and 5.8 ± 0.31 respectively, while similarly the sweet oranges peels physiochemical analysis value were 0.42 ± 0.15 moisture (%), 0.94 ± 0.13 density, 103 ± 0.54 iodine value (g/100g), saponification value (mg/g), peroxide value (mg eq/kg) and free fatty acid value (%) were 183 ± 0.11, 13.5 ± 0.17 and 2.3 ± 0.16 respectively. GC-MS analysis of sour orange and sweet orange peels oil were also calculated. The results of the present study demonstrated that the seeds of citrus species investigated are a potential source of valuable oil which might be utilized for edible and other industrial applications. Source

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