Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal

Barcelona, Spain

Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal

Barcelona, Spain
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Olmo D.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Armengol J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Leon M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Gramaje D.,University of La Rioja
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

In this study, 31 almond orchards with trees showing severe decline symptoms were surveyed from 2009 to 2014 on the island of Mallorca (Spain). In all, 45 Botryosphaeriaceae isolates were collected and characterized based on phenotypical features and comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer region and elongation factor 1-α gene. Five species were identified as Diplodia olivarum, D. seriata, Neofusicoccum luteum, N. mediterraneum, and N. parvum. Pathogenicity tests were performed on four cultivars (‘Pons’, ‘Vivot’, ‘Jordi’, and ‘Ferragnes’) under field conditions for two consecutive years (2013 to 2014), and confirmed that all five species cause canker and dieback of almond, with Neofusicoccum spp. more virulent than Diplodia spp. in both years. Jordi was less sensitive to fungal infection in 2013. First reports from almond in Spain include N. mediterraneum and N. luteum. © 2016 The American Phytopathological Society.

Olmo D.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Gramaje D.,University of La Rioja | Armengol J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2017

In vitro efficacy of ten fungicides was evaluated against four Botryosphaeriaceae spp. (Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum luteum, N. mediterraneum and N. parvum) associated with branch cankers on almond trees. Cyproconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, and thiophanate-methyl were effective for the inhibition of mycelial growth of most of these fungi. An experiment on 3-year-old almond trees evaluated boscalid, mancozeb, thiophanate- methyl, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole for preventative ability against infections caused by the four pathogens. Five months after pruning and fungicide application, lesion length measurements and isolation percentages showed no significant differences among the four pathogens after they were inoculated onto the trees, and also between the two inoculation times tested (1 or 7 d after fungicide application). Thiophanate-methyl was the most effective fungicide, resulting in the shortest lesion lengths and the lowest isolation percentages from artificially inoculated pruning wounds. This chemical is therefore a candidate for inclusion in integrated disease management, to protect pruning wounds from infections caused by species of Botryosphaeriaceae. This study represents the first approach to development of chemical control strategies for the management of canker diseases caused by Botryosphaeriaceae fungi on almond trees. © 2017 Author(s).

Gramaje D.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Agusti-Brisach C.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Perez-Sierra A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Moralejo E.,University of the Balearic Islands | And 4 more authors.
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2012

Severe decline of almond trees has recently been observed in several orchards on the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean Sea). However, the identity of the causal agents has not yet been investigated. Between August 2008 and June 2010, wood samples from branches of almond trees showing internal necroses and brown to black vascular streaking were collected in the Llevant region on the island of Mallorca. Several fungal species were subsequently isolated from the margin between healthy and symptomatic tissue. Five species of Botryosphaeriaceae (namely Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diplodia olivarum, D. seriata, Neofusicoccum australe and N. parvum), Eutypa lata, Phaeoacremonium iranianum and Phomopsis amygdali were identified based on morphology, culture characteristics and DNA sequence comparisons. Neofusicoccum parvum was the dominant species, followed by E. lata, D. olivarum and N. australe. First reports from almond include D. olivarum and Pm. iranianum. Two species are newly described, namely Collophora hispanica sp. nov. and Phaeoacremonium amygdalinum sp. nov. © 2012 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.

Luque J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Garcia-Figueres F.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Legorburu F.J.,Tecnalia | Muruamendiaraz A.,Tecnalia | And 2 more authors.
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2012

The presence and diversity of Diatrypaceae species occurring on grapevines in Eastern Spain were investigated. Several species were identified on the basis of morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of the complete sequence of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA and part of the β-tubulin gene. Five species of Diatrypaceae isolated from the wood of diseased grapevines, pruning debris and/or perithecia were identified, including Anthostoma decipiens, Cryptovalsa ampelina, Eutypa lata, Eutypella citricola and Eutypella microtheca. Additionally, four taxa could not be identified to the species level but were closely related to Eutypa tetragona based on phylogenetic analyses. Eutypa lata was the most prevalent species and showed the greatest degree of genetic diversity. Cryptovalsa ampelina and E. microtheca ranked second in the frequency of isolations, while all the remaining species were less frequently isolated. Eutypella citricola and E. microtheca are reported for the first time as occurring on grapevine in Spain and this is the first report of A. decipiens occurring on grapevine. © Firenze University Press.

Luque J.,Patologia Vegetal | Elena G.,Patologia Vegetal | Garcia-Figueres F.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Reyes J.,Oficina Alt Penedes | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2014

Background and Aims: Information on the natural infection rates of pruned canes caused by fungal trunk pathogens is scarce. This study aimed to determine the pathogenic mycoflora infecting the pruning wounds in two vineyards in Catalonia, Spain, each with a different level of trunk diseases, and in two pruning seasons. Methods and Results: Vines were pruned in each vineyard in mid-autumn leaving four to six buds. Three months later, pathogens were isolated and identified in 250 pruned canes chosen at random in each vineyard. Vines were then definitively pruned to two buds, and sampling for pathogen isolation and identification was repeated 3 months later. The main fungal pathogens identified in this study were Eutypa lata (0-0.4% of isolations), Neofusicoccum parvum (0-1.2%), Botryosphaeria dothidea (0-1.6%), Phomopsis spp. (0-1.6%), Cryptovalsa ampelina (0-3.2%), Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (0-12.0%) and Diplodia seriata (0.4-68.4%). A strong seasonal effect on pathogen infections was detected for most species, with a higher isolation percentage detected after the late pruning as compared with that of the early pruning. Conclusions: Under the environmental conditions and the geographical location of this study, our results showed that the rate of natural infection of pruning wounds was lower following early pruning (autumn) than following late pruning (winter). Significance of the Study: Early pruning could be used in combination with other control measures, such as chemical and biological wound protectants, to reduce the infections caused by the grapevine trunk pathogens during the pruning season in Catalonia, Spain. The infection risk, however, and potential effects of the early pruning on grape production should be considered in other environments before expanding this recommendation to other grapegrowing regions. © 2013 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.

Elena G.,Patologia Vegetal | Garcia-Figueres F.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Reigada S.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Luque J.,Patologia Vegetal
Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Variation of Diplodia seriata, a fungal species associated with botryosphaeria dieback of grapevine, was investigated with respect to its genetic, phenotypic and pathogenic characteristics. The inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique was used to investigate the genetic diversity of 83 isolates of D. seriata. Five ISSR primers were able to provide reproducible and polymorphic DNA fingerprint patterns, thus showing a relevant genetic variability in the species. Analyses of ISSR data by different clustering methods grouped the isolates into two distinct clusters through the Bayesian and DAPC analyses. No relationships between either geographic or host origin of isolates and genetic clusters were observed. Several representative isolates from each genetic cluster were chosen for studying their conidial dimensions, in vitro mycelial growth, vegetative and mating compatibility, and pathogenicity on detached grapevine canes and potted vines. No significant differences in conidial dimensions were detected among the groups. Vegetative compatibility reactions were observed among isolates but this was not related with the genetic clustering. Production of sexual fruiting bodies in vegetative compatible crossings was not observed under the experimental conditions used in the study. All 14 isolates tested for pathogenicity were confirmed to be pathogenic according to the length of the necrotic lesions that they caused and their reisolation frequencies from the infected plant tissues. Differences in the length of necrosis were detected among isolates, thus revealing the existence of different virulence levels in the species. © 2014 British Society for Plant Pathology.

Olmo D.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Armengol J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Leon M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Gramaje D.,University of La Rioja
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Cross infection of multiple hosts by fungal trunk pathogens has been reported to occur worldwide. It supports the hypothesis that infected hosts adjacent to vineyards may serve as sources of inoculum for these pathogens. Among the alternative hosts, different studies have shown that almond represents a rich catch-crop for many fungal trunk pathogens. The hyphomycetes Collophora hispanica, Phaeoacremonium (Pm.) amygdalinum, Pm. iranianum and Pleurostomophora richardsiae have recently been isolated from wood samples with internal necroses and brown to black vascular streaking of almond trees showing symptoms of decline in Spain, although their status as pathogens was so far unknown. We inoculated almond trees cv. Ferragnes with these fungal species in greenhouse experiments to determine their pathogenic potential. All of them infected, colonised and produced lesions statistically different from the control, Pl. richardsiae being the most aggressive. Therefore, Co. hispanica, Pm. amygdalinum, Pm. iranianum and Pl. richardsiae should be considered as trunk pathogens of almond trees. © 2015 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging

Martin-Arjol I.,University of Barcelona | Bassas-Galia M.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Bermudo E.,University of Barcelona | Garcia F.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Manresa A.,University of Barcelona
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids | Year: 2010

In microorganisms hydroxy fatty acids are produced from the biotransformation of unsaturated fatty acids. Such compounds belong to a class of oxylipins which are reported to perform a variety of biological functions such as anti-inflammatory or cytotoxic activity. These compounds have been found in rice and timothy plants after being infected by specific fungus. When grown in submerged culture with linoleic acid, Pseudomonas 42A2 accumulated in the supernatant several hydroxy fatty acids. In this work LC-MS/MS has been used to elucidate the structure of the components form the organic extract: 9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid; 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid; 7,10-dihydroxy-8E-octadecenoic acid; 9,10,13-trihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acid and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acid. Antimicrobial activity against several pathogenic fungal strains is presented: MIC (μg/mL) Verticillium dhaliae, 32; Macrophonia phaesolina, 32; Arthroderma uncinatum, 32; Trycophyton mentagrophytes, 64. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Alfaro-Fernandez A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Serrano A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Tornos T.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Del Carmen Cebrian M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

Seed transmission of Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV, genus Tymovirus) was evaluated in the whole seeds and seedlings that emerged from three commercial Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) seed batches. Seedlings in the cotyledon stage and adult plants were assayed for TYMV by DAS-ELISA and confirmed by RT-PCR. The proportion of whole seeds infected with TYMV was at least 0.15 %. The seeds of the three seed batches were grown in Petri dishes, and surveyed in the cotyledon stage in trays that contained a peat:sand mixture grown in greenhouses or growth chambers, which were analysed in the cotyledon and adult stages. The seed-to-seedling transmission rate ranged from 2.5 % to 2.9 % in two different seed batches (lot-08 and lot-09, respectively). Spanish isolates derived from turnip (Sp-03) and Chinese cabbage (Sp-09 and Sp-13), collected in 2003, 2009 and 2013 in two different Spanish regions, were molecularly characterised by analysing the partial nucleotide sequences of three TYMV genome regions: partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), methyltransferase (MTR) and coat protein (CP) genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the CP gene represented two different groups: TYMV-1 and TYMV-2. The first was subdivided into three subclades: European, Australian and Japanese. Spanish isolate Sp-03 clustered together with European TYMV group, whereas Sp-09 and Sp-13 grouped with the Japanese TYMV group, and all differed from group TYMV-2. The sequences of the three different genomic regions examined clustered into the same groups. The results suggested that Spanish isolates grouped according to the original hosts from which they were isolated. The inoculation of the Spanish TYMV isolates to four crucifer plants species (turnip, broccoli, Brunswick cabbage and radish) revealed that all the isolates infected turnip with typical symptoms, although differences were observed in other hosts. © 2016 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging

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