Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura

Balearic Islands, Spain

Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura

Balearic Islands, Spain
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Gil M.M.,Laboratori Dinvestigacions Marines I Aquicultura | Gil M.M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Palmer M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Grau A.,Laboratori Dinvestigacions Marines I Aquicultura | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Marina | Year: 2017

The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different tags (T-bar anchor tags, internal anchor tags and visible implant elastomers) implanted into juvenile meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801) for a restocking programme conducted in the Balearic Islands. Effectiveness was assessed in terms of tag loss, fish survival and fish growth by means of a tank experiment. The internal anchor tags showed the highest retention rate (100%), but the tagging mortality was also high (40%). The tagging mortality of T-bar tags was negligible. However, another tank experiment with different food rates showed the tag retention rate of the T-bar tag to be highly variable, ranging from 35% to 95%. In contrast with other reported results, the retention rate of visible implant elastomers was low (48%). Finally, none of the tested tags affected growth. In summary, the T-bar anchor tags showed the best trade-off between short-term tag retention and fish mortality, and seem to be the most suitable tagging method for meagre juveniles. © 2017 CSIC.


Alonso-Fernandez A.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Alos J.,University of the Balearic Islands | Grau A.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Dominguez-Petit R.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Saborido-Rey F.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research
Marine and Coastal Fisheries | Year: 2011

The usefulness and importance of histological techniques in reproductive studies have been widely discussed for gonochoristic fish species. In the case of hermaphroditic fishes, histology is a particularly important tool for the proper identification of sexual pattern (i.e., sequential, simultaneous, or nonfunctional hermaphroditism).We used a histological approach to describe hermaphroditism, dynamics of follicle development, and spawning patterns in three species from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Balearic Islands, Spain): the Mediterranean rainbow wrasse Coris julis (sequential hermaphrodite), painted comber Serranus scriba (simultaneous hermaphrodite), and annular sea bream Diplodus annularis (nonfunctional hermaphrodite). Development of secondary growth follicles was asynchronous in all three species, and similar peaks in spawning activity occurred between May and July. However, notable differences in sexual cycle and egg production were found. For the painted comber, hydrated follicles were present in ovarian tissue almost every day during the peak of the spawning season, suggesting daily spawning and increasing the chances of autofertilization unless a mechanism to avoid this action is present in this species. Intersexual Mediterranean rainbow wrasses were identified, and the size and age at sex change were estimated to be 132 mm total length and 4 years, respectively. Previous investigators have concluded that the annular sea bream is a protandric hermaphrodite, but our results indicate nonfunctional hermaphroditism. These three species are of little commercial interest and are considered to be bycatch by the artisanal fleet, but they are vulnerable to the impacts of some recreational angling activities. Currently, no specific management plan has been developed for these species. We address the importance of describing sexual pattern and its implications for future conservation efforts. © American Fisheries Society 2011.


Gil M.M.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Gil M.M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Grau A.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Basilone G.,CNR Institute for Coastal Marine Environment | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Marina | Year: 2013

Because the meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is not currently found around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean), the Balearic government is carrying out a restocking programme to recover its population. The success of this programme is critically dependent on improved knowledge of the meagre's life cycle, and particularly its reproductive biology. Data on key reproductive parameters based on both reared and wild specimens are reported here. Histological examinations and gonadosomatic indices from 342 reared specimens demonstrated that 1) the potential reproductive season ranged from April to June and peaked in May, and 2) length at maturity (L50) was 49.3 cm for males and 57.2 cm for females, age at maturity (A50) was 2.7 years for males and 3.5 years for females, and weight at maturity (W50) was 1396 g for males and 1892 g for females. Histological examinations of 37 wild fish from Cádiz (SW Spain) demonstrated that the meagre has determinate fecundity. The annual potential fecundity of reared females ranged from 0.9 to 4.2 million oocytes, which is exponentially dependent upon female size.


Diaz-Gil C.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Diaz-Gil C.,Laboratori DInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Catalan I.A.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Palmer M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | And 2 more authors.
Biology Letters | Year: 2015

Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 matm) and under current control levels (400 matm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Gil M.M.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Gil M.M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Palmer M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Grau A.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2014

The performance of juvenile Argyrosomus regius released off the coast of Mallorca Island (Balearic Islands, Spain) was assessed by comparing the body condition, stable isotope signature and stomach contents of aquaculture-produced A. regius that had been released, fished and returned by fishermen after spending from a few days to >1 year at liberty with A. regius reared under controlled conditions on two contrasting diets (well-fed and unfed). During the first 40 days of the experiment, the condition index (KR) of the returned A. regius and the unfed A. regius followed the same decreasing trend. Thereafter, the KR values of the returned A. regius were significantly higher than those of the unfed A. regius but never reached the values of well-fed A. regius. The δ13C signal of the returned A. regius clearly increased (in comparison with the well-fed A. regius) after they had spent a few months at liberty. The temporal pattern depicted by the stable isotopes and the most likely prey composition inferred from this pattern strongly suggest a shift in diet. The stomach contents of the returned A. regius that had spent <100 days at liberty consisted almost exclusively of decapods. The diet of the few returned A. regius that had spent >100 days at liberty consisted entirely of fishes. Wild A. regius from the remaining fishery on the Spanish coast exhibited the same ontogenetic diet shift from invertebrates to fishes, but at a smaller size threshold. Overall, the results demonstrated that culture-reared A. regius experience adverse conditions during the first days after release into the wild but that at least some A. regius are able to adapt to the natural environment after a few months at liberty. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.


Del Mar Gil M.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Del Mar Gil M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Palmer M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Grau A.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Balle S.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Most reintroduction and restocking programs consist of releasing captive-raised juveniles. The usefulness of these programs has been questioned, and therefore, quality control is advisable. However, evaluating restocking effectiveness is challenging because mortality estimation is required. Most methods for estimating mortality are based on tag recovery. In the case of fish, juveniles are tagged before release, and fishermen typically recover tags when fish are captured. The statistical models currently available for analyzing these data assume either constant mortality rates, fixed tag non-reporting rates, or both. Here, instead, we proposed a method that considers the mortality rate variability as a function of age/size of the released juveniles. Furthermore, the proposed method can disentangle natural from fishing mortality, analyzing the temporal distribution of the captures reported by fishermen from multiple release events. This method is demonstrated with a restocking program of a top-predator marine fish, the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), in the Balearic Islands. The estimated natural mortality just after release was very high for young fish (m0 = 0.126 day-1 for fish 180 days old), but it was close to zero for large/old fish. These large/old fish were more resilient to wild conditions, although a long time was needed to achieve a relevant reduction in natural mortality. Conversely, these large/old fish were more vulnerable to fishing, creating a trade-off in survival. The release age that maximizes the number of survivors after, for example, one year at liberty was estimated to be 1,173 days. However, the production cost of relatively old fish is high, and only a few fish can be produced and released within a realistic budget. Therefore, in the case of the meagre, increasing the number of released fish will have no or scarce effects on restocking success. Conversely, it is advisable implement measures to reduce the high natural mortality of young juveniles and/or the length of time needed to improve fish resilience. © 2015 Gil et al.


Duran J.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Pastor E.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Grau A.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Valencia J.M.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2012

The Mediterranean spider crab, Maja squinado, is depleted due to overfishing. The crab has virtually disappeared from areas where it was abundant, such as the Balearic Islands and the Catalan coast. Maja squinado, is economically and ecologically very valuable, and it is essential to obtain information on its biology and rearing conditions to attempt to repopulate the damaged stocks of the species in the Mediterranean basin. Herein, we describe the first successful rearing of M. squinado under laboratory conditions. Our results show that M. squinado is an excellent candidate for restocking using cultured juveniles. Two consecutive broods with a 1-4 day interbrood period were observed in the laboratory in wild-caught females, the maximum observed duration of embryonic development of the egg mass being 32 days at 18.4 ± 0.9°C, and went through four different stages. The complete larval and first juvenile development was studied in laboratory cultures fed enriched Artemia metanauplius. At 19.6 ± 0.6°C, development from hatching to first crab moult took 17 days, and it comprised two zoeae stages and one megalopa stage. The survival rate at the different stages was monitored, and 7.13 ± 2.3% was achieved at the first crab instar. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Mora-Ruiz M.R.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Font-Verdera F.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Diaz-Gil C.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Diaz-Gil C.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | And 5 more authors.
Systematic and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2015

Halophytes accumulate large amounts of salt in their tissues, and thus are susceptible to colonization by halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms that might be relevant for the growth and development of the plant. Here, the study of 814 cultured strains and 14,189 sequences obtained by 454 pyrosequencing were combined in order to evaluate the presence, abundance and diversity of halophilic, endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms in the phytosphere of leaves of members of the subfamily Salicornioideae from five locations in Spain and Chile. Cultures were screened by the tandem approach of MALDI-TOF/MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, differential centrifugation was used to enrich endophytes for further DNA isolation, 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing. Culturable and non-culturable data showed strong agreement with a predominance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The most abundant isolates corresponded to close relatives of the species Chromohalobacter canadensis and Salinicola halophilus that comprised nearly 60% of all isolates and were present in all plants. Up to 66% of the diversity retrieved by pyrosequencing could be brought into pure cultures and the community structures were highly dependent on the compartment where the microorganisms thrived (plant surface or internal tissues). © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.


Duran J.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura | Palmer M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Pastor E.,Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

In this paper, we report the first successful attempt to grow Maja squinado in captivity from larvae to sexual maturity. Eggs were obtained from wild-caught crabs in the laboratory. The larvae-juveniles were reared together to an age of 150-210days. Subsequently, up to seven consecutive molts were individually monitored to an age of 490days maximum. Based on these individually monitored crabs, a growth model was developed to predict the molting probability and molting increment as a function of sex, temperature, and pre-molt size. The predictions of the model show that the females (25-75% percentiles of the 7th monitored molt: 106 to 139mm and 456 to 654days) appear to have a lower but less variable growth rate than the males (98 to 152mm and 378 to 518days). The size at first maturity for females was estimated to be 103.6mm. Although the model was parameterized using individuals raised in aquaculture, data and models of this type are very scarce for crustaceans and will be useful for managing the ongoing stocking program for M. squinado in the Balearic Islands. In addition, the full life cycle of the Mediterranean spider crab was completed in captivity. The mating of laboratory-reared crabs was repeatedly observed, and viable eggs and larvae were obtained from laboratory-reared adults. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies and Laboratori dInvestigacions Marines i Aquicultura
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Most reintroduction and restocking programs consist of releasing captive-raised juveniles. The usefulness of these programs has been questioned, and therefore, quality control is advisable. However, evaluating restocking effectiveness is challenging because mortality estimation is required. Most methods for estimating mortality are based on tag recovery. In the case of fish, juveniles are tagged before release, and fishermen typically recover tags when fish are captured. The statistical models currently available for analyzing these data assume either constant mortality rates, fixed tag non-reporting rates, or both. Here, instead, we proposed a method that considers the mortality rate variability as a function of age/size of the released juveniles. Furthermore, the proposed method can disentangle natural from fishing mortality, analyzing the temporal distribution of the captures reported by fishermen from multiple release events. This method is demonstrated with a restocking program of a top-predator marine fish, the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), in the Balearic Islands. The estimated natural mortality just after release was very high for young fish (m0 = 0.126 day-1 for fish 180 days old), but it was close to zero for large/old fish. These large/old fish were more resilient to wild conditions, although a long time was needed to achieve a relevant reduction in natural mortality. Conversely, these large/old fish were more vulnerable to fishing, creating a trade-off in survival. The release age that maximizes the number of survivors after, for example, one year at liberty was estimated to be 1,173 days. However, the production cost of relatively old fish is high, and only a few fish can be produced and released within a realistic budget. Therefore, in the case of the meagre, increasing the number of released fish will have no or scarce effects on restocking success. Conversely, it is advisable implement measures to reduce the high natural mortality of young juveniles and/or the length of time needed to improve fish resilience.

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