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Harfouche G.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Vaigot P.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Rachidi W.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Rachidi W.,CEA Grenoble | And 8 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2010

Tissue stem cells must be endowed with superior maintenance and repair systems to ensure genomic stability over multiple generations, which would be less necessary in more differentiated cells. We previously reported that human keratinocyte stem cells were more resistant to ionizing radiation toxicity than their direct progeny, the keratinocyte progenitor cells. In the present study we addressed the mechanisms underlying this difference. Investigations of DNA repair showed that both single and double DNA strand breaks were repaired more rapidly and more efficiently in stem cells than in progenitors. As cell signaling is a key regulatory step in the management of DNA damage, a gene profiling study was performed. Data revealed that several genes of the fibroblast growth factor type 2 (FGF2) signaling pathway were induced by DNA damage in stem cells and not in progenitors. Furthermore, an increased content of the FGF2 protein was found in irradiated stem cells, both for the secreted and the cellular forms of the protein. To examine the role of endogenous FGF2 in DNA repair, stem cells were exposed to FGF2 pathway inhibitors. Blocking the FGF2 receptor (FGF receptor 1) or the kinase (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) resulted in a inhibition of single and double DNA strand-break repair in the keratinocyte stem cells. Moreover, supplementing the progenitor cells with exogenous FGF2 activated their DNA repair. We propose that, apart from its well-known role as a strong mitogen and prosurvival factor, FGF2 helps to maintain genomic integrity in stem cells by activating stress-induced DNA repair. ©AlphaMed Press.


Lebonvallet N.,Health Science University | Boulais N.,Health Science University | Le Gall C.,Health Science University | Cheret J.,Health Science University | And 8 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2012

Adult stem cells could be small sources of neurons or other cellular types for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Recently, pluripotent stem cells have been extracted from skin tissue, which opened a new accessible source for research. To routinely obtain a high yield of functional neurons from adult human skin stem cells with defined serum-free medium, stem cells from abdominal skin were cultured in serum-free medium. To differentiate them, we used a defined medium containing growth factors. Differentiated cells were identified using the following methods: (i) Oil-red-O staining for adipocytes, immunocytochemistry with antibodies recognising (ii) neurofilaments and PGP9.5 for neural differentiation, (iii) glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for glial differentiation, (iv) Ki-67 for proliferative cells, (v) FM1-43 staining to analyse vesicle trafficking in neuronal cells and (vi) a PCR array was used. Stem cells were floating in spheres and were maintained in culture for 4months or more. They expressed nestin and Oct 4 and were proliferative. We induced specific differentiation into adipocytes, glial and neuronal cells. The yields of differentiated neurons were high and reproducible. They were maintained for long time (1month) in the culture medium. Furthermore, these neurons incorporated FM1-43 dye, which indicates a potent acquisition of synaptic features in neurons. Stem cells from adult human skin could be valuable and reproducible tools/source to obtain high numbers of functional specific cellular types, such as neurons, for tissue engineering. In this work, the possibility to obtain a high yield of differentiated neurons, with the ability of endocytosis and vesicle cell trafficking, was shown. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Lebonvallet N.,Health Science University | Jeanmaire C.,Laboratoires Serobiologiques | Danoux L.,Laboratoires Serobiologiques | Sibille P.,Office of Plastic | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2010

Different models have been developed to understand the biology of skin or to test pharmaceutical/cosmetic products. These models can be in vitro models that possess advantages such as mono and co-culture models in 2D, which are very reproducible, or organotypic models (skin explant and reconstructed skin) that present a 3D organisation. Animal or human in vivo models allow studies that are closer to reality. In virtuo models developed on computers control all known parameters and do not require animals. The major limitations of these models are the lack of 3D structure for in vitro culture, the variability of results from organotypic models, ethical problems inherent to human and animal tests and the presence of numerous unknown parameters in in virtuo systems. Despite their limitations, skin explants seem to be an interesting model for studies. Skin explants may be kept from a few hours to 10-14 days on supports or directly in culture medium. These explants are generally cultivated at 37 °C, 5% CO 2, preferentially in serum-free conditions. Three basic techniques are used to characterise these models: histological stains, proliferation, apoptosis and cytotoxicity tests. Skin explants could be a very convenient model to study wound-healing, inflammation processes, autoimmune diseases, malignant transformation, stress, ageing, and to serve as screening tests.


Villaret A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Villaret A.,University Paul Sabatier | Villaret A.,Laboratoires Serobiologiques | Galitzky J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 16 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE - Regional differences among adipose depots in capacities for fatty acid storage, susceptibility to hypoxia, and inflammation likely contribute to complications of obesity. We defined the properties of endothelial cells (EC) isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsied in parallel from obese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The architecture and properties of the fat tissue capillary network were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. CD34 +/CD31+ EC were isolated by immunoselection/depletion. Expression of chemokines, adhesion molecules, angiogenic factor receptors, as well as lipogenic and senescence-related genes were assayed by real-time PCR. Fat cell size and expression of hypoxia-dependent genes were determined in adipocytes from both fat depots. RESULTS - Hypoxia-related genes were more highly expressed in VAT than SAT adipocytes. VAT adipocytes were smaller than SAT adipocytes. Vascular density and EC abundance were higher in VAT. VAT-EC exhibited a marked angiogenic and inflammatory state with decreased expression of metabolism-related genes, including endothelial lipase, GPIHBP1, and PPAR gamma. VAT-EC had enhanced expression of the cellular senescence markers, IGFBP3 and γ-H2AX, and decreased expression of SIRT1. Exposure to VAT adipocytes caused more EC senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity than SAT adipocytes, an effect reduced in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS - VAT-EC exhibit a more marked angiogenic and proinflammatory state than SAT-EC. This phenotype may be related to premature EC senescence. VAT-EC may contribute to hypoxia and inflammation in VAT. © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association.

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