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Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Alavi S.R.,Urmia Tobacco Research Center | Sarafi A.,Laboratoire Symbiose et Pathologie des Plantes
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2011

In the present study, the accumulation rates of chloride in the leaves of 100 oriental and semi-oriental tobacco genotypes were evaluated in Urmia Tobacco Research Centre (UTRC). Tobacco genotypes were transplanted in a simple square lattice design with two replications. Each plot was comprised of three lines of 5 m, with a spacing of 65 × 20 cm. Harvested tobacco leaves were sun-cured. From each replication, a random sample of 20 leaves was taken and percentage of chlorine was determined, as defined by CORESTA. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the tobacco genotypes for Cl concentration indicating that Cl concentration is genetically controlled in the genotypes tested. The Cl concentration of 100 genotypes ranged from 0.38-2.68%. Tobacco genotypes, showing low Cl concentration together the reference genotype (Basma S. 31) were evaluated once more in UTRC (low Cl soil) and Anghaneh village (high Cl soil) located near to Urmia salty lack. While all selected genotypes except the local variety, 'Basma S. 31', showed again the accumulation rate of chloride less than 1% in UTRC, in Anghaneh village only one genotype, 'SPT 406', presented a value less than 1% chloride in leaves indicating that this genotype has a great value for using in the breeding programmes. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Maleki H.H.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh | Sarrafi A.,Laboratoire Symbiose et Pathologie des Plantes
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

In order to study the association among yield components and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield of sunflower under well-watered and water-stressed conditions, six sunflower inbred lines and their 15 F1 hybrids were investigated using a randomized complete block design with three replications in each water treatment conditions. Different traits such as: chlorophyll content (CC), head diameter (HD), head weight (HW), leaf number (LN), number of aerial part dry weight (APDW), number of achene (NA), plant height (PH) and seed yield per plant (SY) were measured. Morphological traits were measured in full flowering stage and traits related to seed were recorded after seed harvesting. Genotypic correlations manifest that seed yield per plant was positively and significantly associated with head diameter, plant height and number of leaf and achene traits at well-watered condition. While, in the water-stressed state, head weight, head diameter, number of achene and chlorophyll content showed positive and significant correlation with seed yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis revealed that traits including head diameter and number of achene in both conditions and chlorophyll content in water-stressed condition have positive direct effect on seed yield per plant. Therefore, selection based on these traits would be more effective to improving seed yield of sunflower in well-watered and water-stress conditions. Source


Darvishzadeh R.,Urmia University | Pirzad A.,Urmia University | Bernousi I.,Urmia University | Mandoulakani B.A.,Urmia University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2011

The objective of the present study was genetic analysis of yield-based drought tolerance indices using the diallel method. Twenty-one genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) derived from a half diallel cross between six inbred lines were evaluated in both stress and non-stress conditions using a randomized complete block design for each one. Eight drought tolerance indices comprising stress tolerance index (STI), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), harmonic mean (HM), stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (TOL), yield index (YI) and yield stability index (YSI) were calculated based on grain yield under stress and non-stress environments. Significant genotypic differences were observed in TOL, GMP, MP, STI, HM and YI. Diallel analyses revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive gene effects in GMP, STI, HM and YI. However, the Baker ratio supported the predominance of an additive effect in their expression. Our results demonstrated that SSI, YSI, TOL and MP are not reliable indices to select drought tolerant genotypes in sunflower breeding programmes because of their low heritability. Indices such as GMP, STI, HM and YI were moderately heritable and are usually able to select high-yielding genotypes in both environments and could be usefully employed in drought tolerance breeding programmes of sunflower. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

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