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Ben Moussa A.,Moulay Ismai University | Chahlaoui A.,Moulay Ismai University | Rour E.,Moulay Ismai University | Chahboune M.,Moulay Ismai University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

A study was conducted to estimate the prevalence, antibiotic sensitivity and distribution of serotypes and virulence genes of Salmonella in surface waters of the Khoumane River. The serotypes as well as antibiotic-resistance patterns and gene virulence of the Salmonella isolates were determined. 84 water samples were tested during the August 2010- July 2011 period. Among them, 2, 38 % were positive for Salmonella. All strains were identified Salmonella Butantan. Results of antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that both Salmonella are sensitive to C3G and Quinolones and are resistant to Amoxicillin and Sulfonamides. All Salmonella strains tested were positive for the invasion gene invA and the virulence gene spvC carried by a plasmid with 54Kb size. These Salmonella can be transmitted to human populations through the use of water from the river. Source


El Ouali Lalami A.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | Zanibou A.,Service Prefectoral dHygiene du Milieu | Bekhti K.,Moulay Ismai University | Zerrouq F.,Laboratoire Of Catalyse | Merzouki M.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

In absence of an adequate station of wastewater treatment of the town of Fès, which is located in the center - north of Morocco, these last are directly poured in the rivers. Within the framework of the monitoring of the hydrous transportable diseases (cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, parasitoses...) and in order to evaluate the consecutive damage, we carried out a microbiological study, for the spring and estival period of the years 2010, 2011 and 2012, over nine stations collecting domestic and industrial wastewater of the town of Fès. The results obtained of the evolution of bacteriological and parasitological pollution show a significant pollution represented by the presence and identification of species of Salmonella typhi and of parasites particularly the cysts of protozoan Entamoeba histolitica, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia with average contents of about 4,3×104 cysts/l; 8,4×103 cysts/l and 5,2 104 cysts/l respectively, and of helminths eggs with average concentrations from 2 to 33 eggs/l. The choleric vibrios were not detected in all the studied stations of wastewater. The number of the micro-organisms met exceeds the limits indicated by the directives of WHO and the Moroccan standards into force. The micro-organisms met can be at the origin of a medical risk in particular the cause of mild or serious infections: gastro-enteritis, Diarrheic, ascariasis, Dysenteric, hepatitis, typhoid, leptospirosis... Source


El Marnissi B.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Belkhou R.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Morgavi D.P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bennani L.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | Boudra H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

A survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was carried out on eight traditional dairies belonging to four sectors of Fez city situated in the northern center of Morocco. Raw milk samples were collected between October 2009 and September 2010, and analyzed by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity purification. AFM1 was detected in 13 out of 48 samples (27%) at concentrations ranged between 10 and 100. ng/l. Within these positive samples, four (∼8% of the total) were above the European legislation limit of 50. ng/l. This study revealed a variation of contamination from one sector to another with a higher incidence in milk samples collected in autumn compared to those collected in other seasons suggesting a link between feeding practices, such as the use of silage and AFM1 contamination. This is the first report on AFM1 contamination in raw milk directly collected from Moroccan traditional dairies. The levels of contamination found justify more detailed and continuous monitoring to assess the public health implication and reduce consumers' exposure to AFM1. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


El Ouali Lalami A.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El-Akhal F.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El-Akhal F.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | El Amri N.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2014

In Morocco, Culex pipiens plays a role in the high annoyance experienced by most urban cities, suburban and rural areas, especially since it was strongly suspected as the most likely vector in the transmission of West Nile virus epidemics that have hit Morocco in 1996. Chemical insecticides are generally the way in which they use the programs against harmful mosquitoes and disease vectors. However, the repeated and excessive use of these products regularly led to the emergence of the phenomenon of insect resistance. At the center of Morocco, information on the susceptibility or resistance to insecticides in mosquitoes (larvae and adults) vectors of diseases or pests, are almost nonexistent. This article reports the results of studies conducted between 2007 and 2010 with sensitivity tests WHO on larvae local populations of Culex pipiens collected in three lodging in the city of Fez, towards the insecticide mostly used by hygienic services: temephos. Five concentrations of insecticide (0.0025 mg/l, 0.005 mg/l, 0.0125 mg/l, 0.025 mg/l, 0.0625 mg/l) in addition to control, were used to determine the LC50 and LC 90 of Culex pipiens species towards temephos. Sensitivity tests were carried out at the entomology unit and monitoring of insect sensitivity towards insecticides installed at the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory Epidemiological and Environmental Hygiene (LRDEHM), Fez, under the Regional Directorate of Health in Fes Boulemane Region. The LC50 and LC90, concentrations corresponding to 50 and 90% mortality were determined graphically, by the linear relationship between the decimal logarithm of insecticide concentrations (x-axis) and the percentage of mortality transformed into probit values (ordinate) on logarithmic gausso paper. Resistance rates were determined on the basis of the sensitivity of a reference strain (S-Lab). The bioassay results affirmed the presence of resistance in larvae Culex pipiens towards temephos and that this species has also equally developed resistance levels similar and comparable in the three lodging studied, resistance rates recorded varying between 12.17 and 14.34. Facing such a situation, the surveillance of susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides used in mosquito control and anti-malarial fight has become imperative. This would undoubtedly allow a good management of the products available and consequently to adopt suitable measures for the best management of this resistance which must be an integral part of any program of vector control. © 2014 Springer-Verlag France. Source


El-Akhal F.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El-Akhal F.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Greche H.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Ouazzani Chahdi F.,Moulay Ismai University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the dried leaves of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Morocco has been analyzed and tested on the species Culex pipiens larvae. The extraction yield obtained for Thymus vulgaris is 1%. The analysis and identification of the various constituents of the oil and determining its relative percentage composition was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This analysis revealed that the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris thymol content of 41.4%, the dominant monoterpene fraction with 97.35 %, consisting of 46.5 % in the oil form and 50.85% in oxygenated compounds form, hydrocarbons sesquitepéniques represent only a small percentage of 1.7%. The constituents of thyme oil have been identified with a total of 99%. Biological test performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the WHO protocol, slightly modified, showed that the essential oil of thym has remarkable larvicidal properties. The minimum levels necessary to achieve 100% mortality of larvae of Culex pipiens was estimated at 220 ppm for Thymus vulgaris. Lethal concentration LC50 and LC90 measured essential oil Thymus vulgaris appears to be effective with the respective values of the order of 103 ppm and 178 ppm. Source

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