Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu

Fès, Morocco

Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu

Fès, Morocco
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Ed-dra A.,Moulay Ismaï University | Filali F.R.,Moulay Ismaï University | Karraouan B.,Institute Pasteur in Morocco | El Allaoui A.,Moulay Ismaï University | And 2 more authors.
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2017

Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. The aims of this study go through two steps: The first step is to estimate the proportion of sausages products contaminated with Salmonella in Meknes city (Morocco), which were collected from various shopping sites: butchery, street vendors, supermarket and souk (Weekly market combines the population of the small villages around Meknes city). The second one is to identify serovars, to determine the antimicrobials resistance patterns of isolates and to detect the invA and spvC genes. 34 (21.79%) Salmonella were isolated, recovered 4 serogroups and 12 serotypes. The most prevalent serotypes were Salmonella Corvallis (23.53%) and Salmonella Kentucky (17.65%). All Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 selected antimicrobials agents, of which 100% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 85.30% (29/34) were resistant to two or more antimicrobials and 44.12% (15/34) were resistant to at least three antimicrobials. All Salmonella are resistant to ampicillin, 76.47% to streptomycin, 20.59% to sulfonamides, 17.65% to Tetracycline and 11.77% to Ofloxacin. The “ACSSuT” penta-resistance pattern was observed in tow of the Salmonella Typhimurium strains. In addition, this study showed that all Salmonella strains (34) were positive for invasion gene invA and negative for the virulence gene spvC. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


El Marnissi B.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Belkhou R.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Morgavi D.P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bennani L.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | Boudra H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

A survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was carried out on eight traditional dairies belonging to four sectors of Fez city situated in the northern center of Morocco. Raw milk samples were collected between October 2009 and September 2010, and analyzed by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity purification. AFM1 was detected in 13 out of 48 samples (27%) at concentrations ranged between 10 and 100. ng/l. Within these positive samples, four (∼8% of the total) were above the European legislation limit of 50. ng/l. This study revealed a variation of contamination from one sector to another with a higher incidence in milk samples collected in autumn compared to those collected in other seasons suggesting a link between feeding practices, such as the use of silage and AFM1 contamination. This is the first report on AFM1 contamination in raw milk directly collected from Moroccan traditional dairies. The levels of contamination found justify more detailed and continuous monitoring to assess the public health implication and reduce consumers' exposure to AFM1. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


El Ouedghiri K.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El Ouedghiri K.,Laboratoire Of La Chimie Organique Appliquee | El Oualti A.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El Ouchy M.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Most chemical pollutants are harmful to health and can cause various health complications such as irritation, allergies, cancer and chemical poisoning. This work is part of the health surveillance of water intended for human consumption produced by the Hygiene services of the Ministry of Health under the rules in force in particular law 10-95. This is a retrospective study, covering the period between January and December of 2012 and 2013, distributed in six districts of the city of Fez. Two examples of chemical quality monitoring are discussed in this article: the case of nitrates and nitrites regulated Morocco with a quality limit set respectively at 50 mg/l and 0.1 mg/l. The drinking water samples were collected by Environmental Health Technicians through appropriate vials, stored and transported in a cooler at the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory Epidemiological and Environmental Hygiene Fez (RDLEEHF) for analysis. For a total of 341 samples, the determination of nitrite and nitrate by spectrophotometry were performed according to the standards in force. To ensure the reliability of results, RDLEEHF adopt control procedures (internal and external) quality according to the requirements of the international standard ISO / IEC 17025. Physicochemical results found in this study showed that the determination of nitrite and nitrate respectively recorded concentrations of 0.001 mg/l to 0.09 mg/l and 4.4 mg/l to 9.04 mg/l. The values found for the parameters analyzed are consistent with the Standard 03.7.001 Moroccan and international standards of WHO. These results for the studied parameters must reassure local authorities and inhabitants of the city of Fes good chemical quality of the water provided against the health risks associated with situations that the limits and references drink quality of water intended for human consumption.


El Ouali Lalami A.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | Zanibou A.,Service Prefectoral dHygiene du Milieu | Bekhti K.,Moulay Ismaï University | Zerrouq F.,Laboratoire Of Catalyse | Merzouki M.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

In absence of an adequate station of wastewater treatment of the town of Fès, which is located in the center - north of Morocco, these last are directly poured in the rivers. Within the framework of the monitoring of the hydrous transportable diseases (cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, parasitoses...) and in order to evaluate the consecutive damage, we carried out a microbiological study, for the spring and estival period of the years 2010, 2011 and 2012, over nine stations collecting domestic and industrial wastewater of the town of Fès. The results obtained of the evolution of bacteriological and parasitological pollution show a significant pollution represented by the presence and identification of species of Salmonella typhi and of parasites particularly the cysts of protozoan Entamoeba histolitica, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia with average contents of about 4,3×104 cysts/l; 8,4×103 cysts/l and 5,2 104 cysts/l respectively, and of helminths eggs with average concentrations from 2 to 33 eggs/l. The choleric vibrios were not detected in all the studied stations of wastewater. The number of the micro-organisms met exceeds the limits indicated by the directives of WHO and the Moroccan standards into force. The micro-organisms met can be at the origin of a medical risk in particular the cause of mild or serious infections: gastro-enteritis, Diarrheic, ascariasis, Dysenteric, hepatitis, typhoid, leptospirosis...


El-Fadeli S.,Cadi Ayyad University | Bouhouch R.R.,ETH Zurich | Benmazhar H.,Cadi Ayyad University | Barkouch Y.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

The study concerns the analysis of physical-chemical and mineralogical parameters (pH, conductivity, oxidizability, hardness, chlorides, ammonium, nitrates, nitrites, sulphates, orthophosphate, sodium, potassium, calcium and lead) to establish a diagnosis of pollution in drinking water. Thus, water samples were taken from four areas ( Medina, Mrabtine, Azzouzia, Chouiter) that were monitored over an entire annual cycle in wet period and dry period (in four campaigns). For a total of 320 samples, the dosage of the physico-chemical and mineralogical parameters have been performed according to standards for three types of drinking waters namely: treated networks water, treated well water and untreated well water. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) on the physicochemical and mineralogical data gives us two water varieties: a variety characterized by increased levels of conductivity, hardness and ammonium for Azzouzia area and increased levels of chlorides, hardness, ammonium and nitrites for Mrabtine area and a variety of water whose contents are consistent with national and international standards of WHO for the Medina and the Chouiter area. Human activities (wastewater discharges, agricultural and industrial activities) are the main cause of this drinking water pollution of in the Mrabtine and the Azzouzia area.


El-Akhal F.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El-Akhal F.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Guemmouh R.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Greche H.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | El Ouali Lalami A.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Aromatic plants have an increasingly important asset by the valorization of their essential oils in different applications particularly as anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antifungal, antibacterial, antitoxic, insecticides and repellents, toning, stimulating, soothing, etc.. This study reports the valorization, as bio insecticide, two essential oils from two plants of the family Rutaceae (Citrus aurantium and Citrus sinensis), extracted by distillation and analyzed by hydrocarbon gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Limonene was obtained as majority compound, with a percentage of 95.36% with 90.0% Citrus sinensis and in Citrus aurantium. The bio tests conducted in laboratory conditions of these oils against the mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), vectors parasitic diseases showed that the essential oil of Citrus aurantium has an interesting than the essential oil of Citrus sinensis larvicidal activity. Indeed, 100% mortality of larvae stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens was obtained at concentrations of 300 ppm for Citrus aurantium and 600 ppm for Citrus sinensis. The LC50 and LC90 of Citrus aurantium and Citrus sinensis were calculated respectively in the order of 139.48 ; 212.04 and 280ppm ; 516ppm.


El-Akhal F.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El-Akhal F.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Greche H.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Ouazzani Chahdi F.,Moulay Ismaï University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the dried leaves of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Morocco has been analyzed and tested on the species Culex pipiens larvae. The extraction yield obtained for Thymus vulgaris is 1%. The analysis and identification of the various constituents of the oil and determining its relative percentage composition was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This analysis revealed that the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris thymol content of 41.4%, the dominant monoterpene fraction with 97.35 %, consisting of 46.5 % in the oil form and 50.85% in oxygenated compounds form, hydrocarbons sesquitepéniques represent only a small percentage of 1.7%. The constituents of thyme oil have been identified with a total of 99%. Biological test performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the WHO protocol, slightly modified, showed that the essential oil of thym has remarkable larvicidal properties. The minimum levels necessary to achieve 100% mortality of larvae of Culex pipiens was estimated at 220 ppm for Thymus vulgaris. Lethal concentration LC50 and LC90 measured essential oil Thymus vulgaris appears to be effective with the respective values of the order of 103 ppm and 178 ppm.


Fikri Benbrahim K.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Rachiq S.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Zbadi L.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | Belfqih R.,Station thermale de Moulay Yaacoub | El Ouali Lalami A.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

Moulay Yaâcoub and Ain Allah are two spas among the best known in the Fez region for centuries due to their therapeutic effects in the treatment of different infection's types. In order to prevent health risks related to the use of their waters by spa guests, sampling campaigns of water from fountain and swimming pool were conducted on quarterly during 2014 in both stations Moulay Yaâcoub and Ain Allah. The results showed that the physico-chemical parameters of the fountain's waters of the two stations respect Moroccan standards and that waters of the Moulay Yacoub station are hyperthermal (50 ° C) and have a high conductivity (47800 μS / cm) and high levels of sodium (> 1000 mg. L-1) and calcium (> 800 mg. L-1) comparatively to water of the Ain Allah station which are mesothermal (39 °C), have an average conductivity (870 μS / cm) and exhibit lower sodium and calcium levels. Bacteriological analysis showed the absence of pathogens in the fountain waters of both studied stations. The pool's waters of Ain Allah station showed high contamination levels by mesophilic flora and fecal pollution indicators (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci) during the summer period compared to pool waters of Moulay Yacoub station which showed very low densities. This bacterial charge is probably due to contamination primarily related to a large number of bathers in this station during this season. The results of this study should therefore encourage responsible authorities to take necessary measures for the supervision and the control of these waters quality.


El Ouali Lalami A.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El-Akhal F.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | El-Akhal F.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | El Amri N.,Laboratoire Regional Of Diagnostic Epidemiologique Et Dhygiene Du Milieu | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2014

In Morocco, Culex pipiens plays a role in the high annoyance experienced by most urban cities, suburban and rural areas, especially since it was strongly suspected as the most likely vector in the transmission of West Nile virus epidemics that have hit Morocco in 1996. Chemical insecticides are generally the way in which they use the programs against harmful mosquitoes and disease vectors. However, the repeated and excessive use of these products regularly led to the emergence of the phenomenon of insect resistance. At the center of Morocco, information on the susceptibility or resistance to insecticides in mosquitoes (larvae and adults) vectors of diseases or pests, are almost nonexistent. This article reports the results of studies conducted between 2007 and 2010 with sensitivity tests WHO on larvae local populations of Culex pipiens collected in three lodging in the city of Fez, towards the insecticide mostly used by hygienic services: temephos. Five concentrations of insecticide (0.0025 mg/l, 0.005 mg/l, 0.0125 mg/l, 0.025 mg/l, 0.0625 mg/l) in addition to control, were used to determine the LC50 and LC 90 of Culex pipiens species towards temephos. Sensitivity tests were carried out at the entomology unit and monitoring of insect sensitivity towards insecticides installed at the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory Epidemiological and Environmental Hygiene (LRDEHM), Fez, under the Regional Directorate of Health in Fes Boulemane Region. The LC50 and LC90, concentrations corresponding to 50 and 90% mortality were determined graphically, by the linear relationship between the decimal logarithm of insecticide concentrations (x-axis) and the percentage of mortality transformed into probit values (ordinate) on logarithmic gausso paper. Resistance rates were determined on the basis of the sensitivity of a reference strain (S-Lab). The bioassay results affirmed the presence of resistance in larvae Culex pipiens towards temephos and that this species has also equally developed resistance levels similar and comparable in the three lodging studied, resistance rates recorded varying between 12.17 and 14.34. Facing such a situation, the surveillance of susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides used in mosquito control and anti-malarial fight has become imperative. This would undoubtedly allow a good management of the products available and consequently to adopt suitable measures for the best management of this resistance which must be an integral part of any program of vector control. © 2014 Springer-Verlag France.


Ben Moussa A.,Moulay Ismaï University | Chahlaoui A.,Moulay Ismaï University | Rour E.,Moulay Ismaï University | Chahboune M.,Moulay Ismaï University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

A study was conducted to estimate the prevalence, antibiotic sensitivity and distribution of serotypes and virulence genes of Salmonella in surface waters of the Khoumane River. The serotypes as well as antibiotic-resistance patterns and gene virulence of the Salmonella isolates were determined. 84 water samples were tested during the August 2010- July 2011 period. Among them, 2, 38 % were positive for Salmonella. All strains were identified Salmonella Butantan. Results of antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that both Salmonella are sensitive to C3G and Quinolones and are resistant to Amoxicillin and Sulfonamides. All Salmonella strains tested were positive for the invasion gene invA and the virulence gene spvC carried by a plasmid with 54Kb size. These Salmonella can be transmitted to human populations through the use of water from the river.

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