Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane

Plouzané, France

Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane

Plouzané, France
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Geay F.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Ferraresso S.,University of Padua | Zambonino-Infante J.L.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Bargelloni L.,University of Padua | And 6 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM) or fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).Results: We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD), but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD). Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663). Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein catabolism, amino acid transaminations, RNA splicing and blood coagulation were also found to be regulated by diet, while the expression of genes involved in protein and ATP synthesis differed between the half-sibfamilies.Conclusions: Overall, the combined gene expression, compositional and biochemical studies demonstrated a large panel of metabolic and physiological effects induced by total substitution of both FM and FO in the diets of European sea bass and revealed physiological characteristics associated with the two half-sibfamilies. © 2011 Geay et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Barnaud E.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Barnaud E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Barnaud E.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Rogee S.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | And 7 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection of zoonotic origin is an emerging concern in industrialized countries. In the past few years,several cases of zoonotic hepatitis E have been identified and the consumption of food products derived from pork liver have been associated with clusters of human cases. More specifically, raw or undercooked pork products have been incriminated. Few data on the effect of heating on HEV inactivation in food products are available. In the present study,the various times and temperatures that are used during industrial processing of pork products were applied to experimentally contaminated food preparations.After treatment, the presence of residual infectious virus particles was investigated using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and an in vivo experimental model in pigs. Results show that heating the food to an internal temperature of 71°C for 20 min is necessary to completely inactivate HEV. These results are very important for determining processing methods to ensure food safety in regard to food-borne hepatitis E. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Nystrom K.,University of Nantes | Le Gall-Recule G.,Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane | Grassi P.,Imperial College London | Abrantes J.,University of Nantes | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2011

Rabbit Hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a calicivirus of the Lagovirus genus, and responsible for rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), kills rabbits between 48 to 72 hours post infection with mortality rates as high as 50-90%. Caliciviruses, including noroviruses and RHDV, have been shown to bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) and human non-secretor individuals lacking ABH antigens in epithelia have been found to be resistant to norovirus infection. RHDV virus-like particles have previously been shown to bind the H type 2 and A antigens. In this study we present a comprehensive assessment of the strain-specific binding patterns of different RHDV isolates to HBGAs. We characterized the HBGA expression in the duodenum of wild and domestic rabbits by mass spectrometry and relative quantification of A, B and H type 2 expression. A detailed binding analysis of a range of RHDV strains, to synthetic sugars and human red blood cells, as well as to rabbit duodenum, a likely gastrointestinal site for viral entrance was performed. Enzymatic cleavage of HBGA epitopes confirmed binding specificity. Binding was observed to blood group B, A and H type 2 epitopes in a strain-dependent manner with slight differences in specificity for A, B or H epitopes allowing RHDV strains to preferentially recognize different subgroups of animals. Strains related to the earliest described RHDV outbreak were not able to bind A, whereas all other genotypes have acquired A binding. In an experimental infection study, rabbits lacking the correct HBGA ligands were resistant to lethal RHDV infection at low challenge doses. Similarly, survivors of outbreaks in wild populations showed increased frequency of weak binding phenotypes, indicating selection for host resistance depending on the strain circulating in the population. HBGAs thus act as attachment factors facilitating infection, while their polymorphism of expression could contribute to generate genetic resistance to RHDV at the population level. © 2011 Nyström et al.

PubMed | Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane, French National Center for Scientific Research, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Autonomous University of Barcelona and Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mucosal immunology | Year: 2016

Human and mouse respiratory tracts show anatomical and physiological differences, which will benefit from alternative experimental models for studying many respiratory diseases. Pig has been recognized as a valuable biomedical model, in particular for lung transplantation or pathologies such as cystic fibrosis and influenza infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the porcine respiratory immune system. Here we segregated and studied six populations of pig lung dendritic cells (DCs)/macrophages (Ms) as follows: conventional DCs (cDC) 1 and cDC2, inflammatory monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), monocyte-derived Ms, and interstitial and alveolar Ms. The three DC subsets present migratory and naive T-cell stimulation capacities. As observed in human and mice, porcine cDC1 and cDC2 were able to induce T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 responses, respectively. Interestingly, porcine moDCs increased in the lung upon influenza infection, as observed in the mouse model. Pig cDC2 shared some characteristics observed in human but not in mice, such as the expression of FCRI and Langerin, and an intra-epithelial localization. This work, by unraveling the extended similarities of the porcine and human lung DC/M networks, highlights the relevance of pig, both as an exploratory model of DC/M functions and as a model for human inflammatory lung pathologies.

Bouquet J.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Tesse S.,Hopital des Armees Val de Grace | Lunazzi A.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Eloit M.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | And 3 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Frequent zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been suspected, but data supporting the animal origin of autochthonous cases are still sparse. We assessed the genetic identity of HEV strains found in humans and swine during an 18-month period in France. HEV sequences identified in patients with autochthonous hepatitis E infection (n = 106) were compared with sequences amplified from swine livers collected in slaughterhouses (n = 43). Phylogenetic analysis showed the same proportions of subtypes 3f (73.8%), 3c (13.4%), and 3e (4.7%) in human and swine populations. Furthermore, similarity of >99% was found between HEV sequences of human and swine origins. These results indicate that consumption of some pork products, such as raw liver, is a major source of exposure for autochthonous HEV infection.

PubMed | University Bretagne Loire, Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane, Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Aquaculture veterinarian and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of fish diseases | Year: 2016

Iridoviridae are known to cause disease in sturgeons in North America. Here, histological and molecular methods were used to screen for this family of virus in sturgeons from various European farms with low-to-high morbidity. Some histological samples revealed basophilic cells in the gill and labial epithelia, strongly suggesting the accumulation of iridovirus particles. Newly developed generic PCR tests targeting the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of sturgeon iridoviruses identified in North America, namely the white sturgeon iridovirus and the Namao virus (NV), produced positive signals in most samples from four sturgeon species: Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Siberian (A.baerii), Adriatic (A.naccarii) and beluga (Huso huso). The sequences of the PCR products were generally highly similar one another, with nucleotide identities greater than 98%. They were also related to (74-88%), although distinct from, American sturgeon iridoviruses. These European viruses were thus considered variants of a single new virus, provisionally named Acipenser iridovirus-European (AcIV-E). Moreover, three samples infected with AcIV-E showed genetic heterogeneity, with the co-existence of two sequences differing by five nucleotides. One of our European samples carried a virus distinct from AcIV-E, but closely related to NV identified in Canada (95%). This study demonstrates the presence of two distinct sturgeon iridoviruses in Europe: a new genotype AcIV-E and an NV-related virus.

PubMed | National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse, Laboratoire Of Lyon and Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied microbiology | Year: 2016

Mycoplasma agalactiae is responsible for Contagious Agalactia, a severe syndrome affecting small ruminants worldwide and resulting in significant economic losses in countries with an important dairy industry. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of M. agalactiae isolates in France, their evolution over the last 25 years and their relationships with the genetic diversity of isolates and their origin (geographical and animal host).Susceptibility patterns were determined by measuring minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of several antimicrobials used against mycoplasmas. Caprine M. agalactiae strains showed increased MICs over time for most of the antimicrobials tested, except fluoroquinolones. This susceptibility loss was homogeneous despite the considerable genetic and geographical heterogeneity of the isolates. In contrast, all the ovine isolates originating from a single clone and the same region showed increased MICs only to some macrolides.MICs have evolved differently depending on the origin of the isolates but the overall loss in susceptibility has remained far more moderate than that of Mycoplasma bovis, a cattle pathogen closely related to M. agalactiae.Several hypotheses are proposed to explain the differences in susceptibility patterns, such as local, specific, nonmycoplasma-targeting antibiotic treatments and the genetic background of isolates in connection with their animal host.

Tissier A.,Laboratoire Dhydrologie Of Nancy | Tissier A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Denis M.,Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane | Hartemann P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gassilloud B.,Laboratoire Dhydrologie Of Nancy
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Investigations of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in samples of drinking water suspected of being at the origin of an outbreak very often lead to negative results. One of the reasons for this failure is the small volume of water typically used for detecting these pathogens (10 to 1,000 ml). The efficiencies of three microfilters and different elution procedures were determined using real-time quantitative PCR to propose a procedure allowing detection of Campylobacter in 20 liters of drinking water or low-turbidity water samples. The results showed that more than 80% of the bacteria inoculated in 1 liter of drinking water were retained on each microfilter. An elution with a solution containing 3% beef extract, 0.05Mglycine at pH 9, combined with direct extraction of the bacterial genomes retained on the cellulose ester microfilter, allowed recovery of 87.3% (±22% [standard deviation]) of Campylobacter per 1 liter of tap water. Recoveries obtained from 20-liter volumes of tap water spiked with a C. coli strain were 69.5% (±10.3%) and 78.5% (±15.1%) for 91 CFU and 36 CFU, respectively. Finally, tests performed on eight samples of 20 liters of groundwater collected from an alluvial well used for the production of drinking water revealed the presence of C. jejuni and C. coli genomes, whereas no bacteria were detected with the normative culture method in volumes ranging from 10 to 1,000 ml. In the absence of available epidemiological data and information on bacterial viability, these last results indicate only that the water resource is not protected from contamination by Campylobacter. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

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