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Bouquet J.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Tesse S.,Hopital des Armees Val de Grace | Lunazzi A.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Eloit M.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | And 3 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Frequent zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been suspected, but data supporting the animal origin of autochthonous cases are still sparse. We assessed the genetic identity of HEV strains found in humans and swine during an 18-month period in France. HEV sequences identified in patients with autochthonous hepatitis E infection (n = 106) were compared with sequences amplified from swine livers collected in slaughterhouses (n = 43). Phylogenetic analysis showed the same proportions of subtypes 3f (73.8%), 3c (13.4%), and 3e (4.7%) in human and swine populations. Furthermore, similarity of >99% was found between HEV sequences of human and swine origins. These results indicate that consumption of some pork products, such as raw liver, is a major source of exposure for autochthonous HEV infection.

Geay F.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Ferraresso S.,University of Padua | Zambonino-Infante J.L.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Bargelloni L.,University of Padua | And 6 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM) or fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).Results: We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD), but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD). Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663). Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein catabolism, amino acid transaminations, RNA splicing and blood coagulation were also found to be regulated by diet, while the expression of genes involved in protein and ATP synthesis differed between the half-sibfamilies.Conclusions: Overall, the combined gene expression, compositional and biochemical studies demonstrated a large panel of metabolic and physiological effects induced by total substitution of both FM and FO in the diets of European sea bass and revealed physiological characteristics associated with the two half-sibfamilies. © 2011 Geay et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Marquet F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vu Manh T.-P.,Aix - Marseille University | Vu Manh T.-P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Vu Manh T.-P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2014

Swine skin is one of the best structural models for human skin, widely used to probe drug transcutaneous passage and to test new skin vaccination devices. However, little is known about its composition in immune cells, and among them dendritic cells (DC), that are essential in the initiation of the immune response. After a first seminal work describing four different DC subpopulations in pig skin, we hereafter deepen the characterization of these cells, showing the similarities between swine DC subsets and their human counterparts. Using comparative transcriptomic study, classical phenotyping as well as in vivo and in vitro functional studies, we show that swine CD163pos dermal DC (DDC) are transcriptomically similar to the human CD14pos DDC. CD163pos DDC are recruited in inflamed skin, they migrate in inflamed lymph but they are not attracted toward CCL21, and they modestly activate allogeneic CD8 T cells. We also show that CD163low DDC are transcriptomically similar to the human CD1apos DDC. CD163low DDC migrate toward CCL21, they activate allogeneic CD8 and CD4 T cells and, like their potential human lung counterpart, they skew CD4 T cells toward a Th17 profile. We thus conclude that swine skin is a relevant model for human skin vaccination. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

Swine influenza, due to swine influenza viruses (SIV) H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, has become enzootic in densely pig-populated areas worldwide. Several genetic lineages can be distinguished within each subtype, as pigs are susceptible to both avian and human influenza viruses and can generate reassortant viruses. SIV is a zoonotic pathogen. Transmission to humans is usually without symptoms, but some cases of severe infections have been reported. Pandemic virus (H1N1) 2009 contains a new gene constellation originating from several SIVs and has acquired an efficient inter-human transmission capacity. Pigs being also very susceptible to this pandemic virus, it could adapt to swine and further reassort with other influenza viruses. This emergence again poses the question about the role played by pigs as an intermediate host for the adaptation of avian viruses to mammalian hosts and the generation of new reassortant viruses. Thus, it is necessary to reinforce surveillance of SIV for Public Health and Animal Health issues. Factors that limit interspecies transmission and adaptation to a new host are polygenic but poorly understood as yet.

Barnaud E.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Barnaud E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Barnaud E.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Rogee S.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | And 7 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection of zoonotic origin is an emerging concern in industrialized countries. In the past few years,several cases of zoonotic hepatitis E have been identified and the consumption of food products derived from pork liver have been associated with clusters of human cases. More specifically, raw or undercooked pork products have been incriminated. Few data on the effect of heating on HEV inactivation in food products are available. In the present study,the various times and temperatures that are used during industrial processing of pork products were applied to experimentally contaminated food preparations.After treatment, the presence of residual infectious virus particles was investigated using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and an in vivo experimental model in pigs. Results show that heating the food to an internal temperature of 71°C for 20 min is necessary to completely inactivate HEV. These results are very important for determining processing methods to ensure food safety in regard to food-borne hepatitis E. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

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