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Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

Ly O.,Laboratoire Of Bacterio Virologie | El Hadji Omar Gueye P.,Laboratoire Of Bacterio Virologie | Deme A.B.,Laboratoire Of Bacterio Virologie | Dieng T.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | And 7 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

The goal of the present study was to assess the evolution of the in vitro chloroquine resistance and also the prevalence of pfcrt T76 and pfmdr1 Y86 mutations in Pikine from 2000 while chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line treatment of malaria to 2009 when artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are in use. We genotyped pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP and assessed in vitro CQ susceptibility by double-site enzymelinked pLDH immunodetection (DELI) assay in Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in Pikine, Senegal. The proportions of the pfcrt T76 allele in the light of the three different treatment policies were 72.4 % before CQ withdrawal (2000 to 2003), 47.2 % while amodiaquine plus Fansidar was the first-line treatment (2004 to 2005), and 59.5 % since the ACT use was implemented (2006 to 2009). The prevalence of pfcrt T76 decreased significantly after CQ was stopped [X 2=6.54, P=0.01 (2000-2003 versus 2004-2005)] and then slightly since ACTs have been implemented [X2=1.12, P=0.28 (2000-2003 versus 2006-2009)]. There were no significant differences on the prevalence of pfmdr1 Y86 throughout the three treatment policies. The DELI assay was carried out episodically in 2000 (n=36), 2001 (n=47), and 2009 (n=37). The mean IC 50s of the isolates to CQ in 2000 versus 2009 and 2001 versus 2009 are significantly different (P<0.05). The Fisher exact test found a significant association between the presence of the pfcrt T76 mutant allele and in vitro resistance in 2000/ 2001 (P=0.023), while in 2009 there were no association between both variables (P=0.274). Mutant pfcrt T76 and pfmdr1 Y86 alleles and in vitro CQ-resistant strains are still circulating in Pikine. The official discontinuation of CQ use is not completely followed by its total withdrawal from private drug sellers, and the molecule still exerts pressure on local P. falciparum populations. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Casalino E.,Groupe Hospitalier University Paris Nord Val Of Seine | Casalino E.,University Paris Diderot | Bernot B.,Hopitaux University Paris Seine St Denis | Bouchaud O.,Hopitaux University Paris Seine St Denis | And 41 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Objective: In October 2009 the French National Authority for Health recommended that HIV testing be proposed at least once to all persons aged 15 to 70 years in all healthcare settings. We examined whether routine HIV screening with a rapid test in emergency departments (EDs) was feasible without dedicated staff, and whether newly diagnosed persons could be linked to care. Methods: This one-year study started in December 2009 in 6 EDs in the Paris area, using the INSTI™ test. Eligible individuals were persons 18 to 70 years old who did not present for a vital emergency, for blood or sexual HIV exposure, or for HIV screening. Written informed consent was required. Results: Among 183 957 eligible persons, 11 401 were offered HIV testing (6.2%), of whom 7936 accepted (69.6%) and 7215 (90.9%) were tested (overall screening rate 3.9%); 1857 non eligible persons were also tested. Fifty-five new diagnoses of HIV infection were confirmed by Western blot (0.61% (95% CI 0.46-0.79). There was one false-positive rapid test result. Among the newly diagnosed persons, 48 (87%) were linked to care, of whom 36 were not lost to follow-up at month 6 (75%); median CD4 cell count was 241/mm3 (IQR: 52-423/mm3). Conclusions: Screening rates were similar to those reported in opt-in studies with no dedicated staff. The rate of new diagnoses was similar to that observed in free anonymous test centres in the Paris area, and well above the prevalence (0.1%) at which testing has been shown to be cost-effective. © 2012 Casalino et al.

Lepretre A.,Institut Universitaire de France | Ba I.,Hopital Psychiatrique de Thiaroye | Lacombe K.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Lacombe K.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Lest Parisien | And 13 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2015

Objectives: Data on the extent of drug use and associated HIV, hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection in West Africa are lacking. The objectives of ANRS12244 UDSEN study were to estimate the size of the heroin and/or cocaine drug user (DU) population living in the Dakar area (Senegal), and assess the prevalence and risk factors of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), including behavioural determinants in this population, in order to set up an integrated prevention and treatment programme for DUs. Design and methods: A capture-recapture method was applied for population size estimation, whereas the respondentdriven sampling (RDS) method was used to recruit a sample of DUs living in the Dakar area and determine HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence. Behavioural data were gathered during face-to-face interviews, and blood samples were collected on dried blood spots for analysis in a central laboratory. Data analysis was performed using the RDS analysis tool, and risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Access to laboratory results was organized for the participants. Results: The size of the DU population in the Dakar area was estimated to reach 1324 (95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1281-1367)). Based on the 506 DUs included in the study, the HIV, HCV and HBV prevalence were 5.2% (95% CI: 3.8-6.3), 23.3% (95% CI: 21.2-25.2) and 7.9% (95% CI: 5.2-11.1), respectively. In people who inject drugs (PWID), prevalence levels increased to 9.4% for HIV and 38.9% for HCV (p=0.001 when compared to those who never injected). Women were more at risk of being HIV infected (prevalence: 13.04% versus 2.97% in males, p=0.001). Being PWID was a risk factor for HCV and HIV infection (odds ratio, OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.7-4.3, and OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.7-10.7, respectively), whereas older age and female sex were additional risk factors for HIV infection (10% increase per year of age, p=0.03 and OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.6-156, respectively). No specific determinant was associated with the risk of HBV infection. Conclusions: High HIV and HCV prevalence were estimated in this population of DUs (including non-injectors) living in the Dakar area, Senegal, whereas HBV prevalence was close to that of the global Senegalese population, reflecting a risk of infection independent of drug use. Women seem to be highly vulnerable and deserve targeted interventions for decreasing exposure to HIV, while behavioural risk factors for HIV and HCV include the use of unsafe injections, reflecting the urgent need for developing harm reduction interventions and access to opioid substitution therapy services. © 2015 Leprêtre A et al.

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