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Haddadi P.,Laboratoire Of Symbiose Et Pathologie Des Plantes Sp2 | Haddadi P.,University of Tehran | Yazdi-samadi B.,University of Tehran | Naghavi M.R.,University of Tehran | And 3 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Reports | Year: 2011

The objective of the present research was to map QTLs associated with agronomic traits such as days from sowing to flowering, plant height, yield and leaf-related traits in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Two field experiments were conducted with well-irrigated and partially irrigated conditions in randomized complete block design with three replications. A map with 304 AFLP and 191 SSR markers with a mean density of 1 marker per 3.7 cM was used to identify QTLs related to the studied traits. The difference among RILs was significant for all studied traits in both conditions. Three to seven QTLs were found for each studied trait in both conditions. The percentage of phenotypic variance (R2) explained by QTLs ranged from 4 to 49%. Three to six QTLs were found for each yield-related trait in both conditions. The most important QTL for grain yield per plant on linkage group 13 (GYP-P-13-1) under partial-irrigated condition controls 49% of phenotypic variance (R2). The most important QTL for 1,000-grain weight (TGW-P-11-1) was identified on linkage group 11. Favorable alleles for this QTL come from RHA266. The major QTL for days from sowing to flowering (DSF-P-14-1) were observed on linkage group 14 and explained 38% of the phenotypic variance. The positive alleles for this QTL come from RHA266. The major QTL for HD (HD-P-13-1) was also identified on linkage group 13 and explained 37% of the phenotypic variance. Both parents (PAC2 and RHA266) contributed to QTLs controlling leaf-related traits in both conditions. Common QTL for leaf area at flowering (LAF-P-12-1, LAF-W-12-1) was detected in linkage group 12. The results emphasise the importance of the role of linkage groups 2, 10 and 13 for studied traits. Genomic regions on the linkage groups 9 and 12 are specific for QTLs of leaf-related traits in sunflower. © 2011 Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology and Springer.

Haddadi P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Haddadi P.,University of Tehran | Haddadi P.,Laboratoire Of Symbiose Et Pathologie Des Plantes Sp2 | Ebrahimi A.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) contains tocopherol, a non-enzymatic antioxidant known as lipid-soluble vitamin E, and phytosterol, with interesting properties, which can result in decreased risk of chronic diseases in humans and with several beneficial effects in plants. The genetic control of tocopherol and phytosterol content in a population of 123 recombinant inbred lines of sunflower was studied through quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis using 190 simple sequence repeats and a gene-based linkage map. Seven experiments were conducted in different environments in France and Iran during 2007 and 2008. Each experiment consisted of three replications. Means over all environments were used for QTL mapping. Five QTL for total tocopherol content on linkage groups 1, 8, 10 and 14 accounted for 45% of phenotypic variation, whereas four QTL for total phytosterol content on linkage groups 1, 2, 16 and 17 explained 27% of the phenotypic variation. GST, PAT2, SFH3 and POD genes showed co-localization with QTL for total phytosterol content. SMT2 is also mapped on linkage group 17 near the QTL of total phytosterol content. Four candidate genes, VTE4, HPPD, GST and Droug1, exhibited co-localization with QTL for total tocopherol content. The candidate genes associated with tocopherol and phytosterol, especially HPPD, VTE4 and SMT2, could be used for alternation of the tocopherol and phytosterol content of sunflower seeds through the development of functional markers. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Berger M.,Purpan Engineering School | Ayerdi-Gotor A.,Polytechnic Institute of LaSalle Beauvais | Sarrafi A.,Laboratoire Of Symbiose Et Pathologie Des Plantes Sp2 | Maury P.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | And 2 more authors.
OCL - Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides | Year: 2010

Sunflower oil is widely consumed in France and Spain. This oil has a good reputation among consumers, due to its high polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Thirty years after its discovery, the oleic mutation (high C18:1 contents) has now reached agricultural production, with fast increasing surfaces for the last three years. The challenge is now the production of very high oleic (> 90%) sunflowers and new fatty acid profiles, such as high linoleic, palmitic, stearic or stearic + oleic hybrids, which are of high interest for chemistry or food industry. The problem is now the stability of the expression in varying genetic backgrounds, and the understanding of environmental effects. Minor components are also a main strength of sunflower oil: its high tocopherols (Vitamin E) content (0,5 to 1%) is all the more interesting for nutritionists that they be almost exclusively a-tocopherol (> 95%), which is the most vitaminic active component. Nowadays, the unraveling of tocopherols biosynthesis and its key points of regulation is in progress. New tocopherol profiles have been recently obtained. Higher protective effects are attributed to γ- or δ-tocopherols. They could increase the stability of oils or margarines. Genetic progress for total content is possible, as in sunflower like in other oilseed crops, heritability is rather high (> 0.7). Sunflower oil also contains twice as much phystosterols as olive oil (3 vs 1,5%), and mainly β-sitosterol. Major mutations of this pathway can induce penalizing phenotypic modifications: 1) campesterol is the precursor of plant hormones brassinosteroids, and 2) stigmasterol/campesterol ratio is also implied in plant growth regulation. However, hybrids can significantly differ in their total content. Either for fatty acids or minor components, breeding programs for new profiles, or higher contents, need high throughout oil extraction and analysis. Chemometric analysis offer interesting solutions despite their need of large sets of reference analysis.

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