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Saint-Martin-des-Champs, France

Georgiev M.,Royal Veterinary College RVC | Afonso A.,European Food Safety Authority EFSA | Neubauer H.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Needham H.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 8 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2013

Q fever is a disease of humans, caused by Coxiella burnetii, and a large range of animals can be infected. This paper presents a review of the epidemiology of Q fever in humans and farm animals between 1982 and 2010, using case studies from four European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany and the Netherlands). The Netherlands had a large outbreak between 2007 and 2010, and the other countries a history of Q fever and Q fever research. Within all four countries, the serological prevalence of C. burnetii infection and reported incidence of Q fever varies broadly in both farm animals and humans. Proximity to farm animals and contact with infected animals or their birth products have been identified as the most important risk factors for human disease. Intrinsic farm factors, such as production systems and management, influence the number of outbreaks in an area. A number of disease control options have been used in these four countries, including measures to increase diagnostic accuracy and general awareness, and actions to reduce spill-over (of infection from farm animals to humans) and human exposure. This study highlights gaps in knowledge, and future research needs.


Alsaleh A.,University of Nantes | Fieni F.,University of Nantes | Moreno D.,University of Nantes | Rousset E.,Laboratoire Of Sophia Antipolis | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium of worldwide distribution, is responsible for Q fever. Domestic ruminants are the main source of infection for humans. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether C. burnetii would adhere to the intact zona pellucida (ZP-intact) of early invitro-produced bovine embryos; (2) whether the bacteria would adhere to or infect the embryos (ZP-free) after invitro infection; and (3) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol. One hundred and sixty, eight- to 16-cell bovine embryos produced invitro, were randomly divided into 16 batches of 10 embryos. Twelve batches (eight ZP-intact and four ZP-free) were incubated in a medium containing C. burnetii CbB1 (Infectiologie Animale et Santé Publique, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique Tours, France). After 18hours of incubation at 37 °C and 5% CO2 in air, the embryos were washed in 10 successive baths of a PBS and 5% fetal calf serum solution in accordance with the IETS guidelines. In parallel, four batches (two ZP-intact and two ZP-free) were subjected to similar procedures but without exposure to C. burnetii to act as controls. Ten washing fluids from each batch were collected and centrifuged for 1hour at 13,000× g. The embryos and wash pellets were tested using conventional polymerase chain reaction. C. burnetii DNA was found in all ZP-intact and ZP-Free embryos after 10 successive washes. It was also detected in the first four washing fluids for ZP-intact embryos and in the 10th wash fluid for two of the four batches of ZP-free embryos. In contrast, none of the embryos or their washing fluids in the control batches were DNA positive. These results demonstrate that C.burnetii adheres to and/or penetrates the early embryonic cells and the ZP of invitro bovine embryos after invitro infection, and that the standard washing protocol recommended by the IETS for bovine embryos, failed to remove it. The persistence of these bacteria after washing makes the embryo a potential means of transmission of the bacterium during embryo transfer from infected donor cows to healthy recipients and/or their offspring. Further studies are required to investigate whether enzymatic and/or antibiotic treatment of bovine embryos infected by C. burnetii would eliminate the bacteria from the ZP and to verify if similarly results are obtained with invivo-derived embryos. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Martin C.,Laboratoire Of Sophia Antipolis | Duquesne V.,Laboratoire Of Sophia Antipolis | Guibert J.-M.,Laboratoire Of Sophia Antipolis | Pulido C.,Laboratoire Of Sophia Antipolis | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2013

Border disease virus (BDV) causes high mortality in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) on the French and Spanish sides of the Pyrenees Mountains. We investigated the pathology induced by BDV in pregnant chamois via experimental infection. Three females were inoculated during the second third of pregnancy with a BDV-4 subgroup strain isolated from a wild Pyrenean chamois during an acute epizootic. A fourth pregnant chamois and one nonpregnant ewe were kept as negative controls. Animals were monitored to assess clinical signs, hematology, viremia, and serology. Postmortem examinations included necropsy, histopathology, and quantification of viral RNA in organs. Pregnancy was unsuccessful in all inoculated animals. One died 24 days postinoculation (dpi) without showing any precursory clinical signs. The second animal had profuse diarrhea from 13 dpi to its death at 51 dpi. The third aborted at 46 dpi and was euthanized at 51 dpi. All animals were viremic from 4 dpi until death. Neutralizing antibodies against BDV-4 were detected from 12 dpi. Necropsies showed generalized lymphadenomegaly, associated in one case with disseminated petechial hemorrhages in the digestive tract. Seventyeight of 79 organs from inoculated adults and their fetuses had detectable viral RNA. The main histologic lesions in adults were mild lymphohistiocytic encephalitis associated with moderate or moderately severe lymphoid depletion. Control animals remained negative for virus (in blood and organs), antibody, and lesions upon postmortem examination. BDV infection during pregnancy in Pyrenean chamois causes severe disease leading to abortion, then death. Despite 100% fetal death following inoculation, viral RNA was recovered from all organs of infected fetuses, suggesting that persistently infected offspring could be born. Our results may help explain the reported decrease in chamois populations in several areas and suggest that great care must be taken when interpreting infection status for wildlife. © Wildlife Disease Association 2013.


Martin C.,Laboratoire Of Sophia Antipolis | Duquesne V.,Laboratoire Of Sophia Antipolis | Adam G.,Laboratoire Of Sophia Antipolis | Belleau E.,British Petroleum | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2015

In alpine pasture, interspecies transmission has recently been incriminated in the epidemiology of pestivirus infection. The aim of this study was to investigate pestivirus infections in wild and domestic ruminants sharing pastures in the French Southern Alps. Animal sera were screened for pestivirus antibodies against the pestivirus NS3 protein by a commercial blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 38 domestic herds tested were positive for pestivirus-specific antibodies. Individual sero-prevalence reached 76.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: [74.2-78.8%]) of the 1383 sheep tested. For wild ruminants, 38.7% (95% CI: [33.8-43.9%]) of the 369 chamois tested, 28.7% (95% CI: [17.4-38.1%]) of the 72 roe deer, and 22.2% (95% CI: [6.5-37.9%]) of the 27 mouflons were seropositive. Virus screening was carried out on spleen samples from hunted wild animals (. n=. 160) and from 15 domestic ruminants (clinically suspected to be persistently infected animals), by a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three pestivirus strains were isolated from the sheep samples positive by RT-PCR. The viruses were classified in the BDV-3, BDV-Tunisian and BDV-6 genotypes. For the first time, one strain (RUPI-05 strain) was isolated from an alpine chamois and clustered in the BDV-6 genotype, showing in the 5'-UTR region 92% of identity with the ovine isolate from the same area. Thus, an active circulation of pestiviruses was demonstrated in both wild and domestic ungulates from the French Southern Alps. The results suggest that interspecies transmission between sheep and chamois probably occur. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Le Marechal C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Le Marechal C.,Agrocampus Ouest | Le Marechal C.,Laboratoire Of Sophia Antipolis | Seyffert N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 22 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection. Methodology/Principal Findings: We employed genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to comprehensively compare two clonally related S. aureus strains that reproducibly induce severe (strain O11) and milder (strain O46) mastitis in ewes. Variation in the content of mobile genetic elements, iron acquisition and metabolism, transcriptional regulation and exoprotein production was observed. In particular, O11 produced relatively high levels of exoproteins, including toxins and proteases known to be important in virulence. A characteristic we observed in other S. aureus strains isolated from clinical mastitis cases. Conclusions/Significance: Our data are consistent with a dose-dependant role of some staphylococcal factors in the hypervirulence of strains isolated from severe mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, transcriptional regulators, exoproteins and iron acquisition pathways constitute good targets for further research to define the underlying mechanisms of mastitis severity. © 2011 Le Maréchal et al.

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