Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale

Montréal, Canada

Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale

Montréal, Canada

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Clement R.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale | Clement R.,University of Sfax | Redpath M.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale | Sauvageau A.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

In cases of hanging, the exact mechanism leading to death has yet to be elucidated. Most of our contemporary knowledge is still based on writings from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. This article reviews the historic experiments that shaped our current theories. Medico-legal textbooks written in English and French from 1870 to 1930 were reviewed. Various animals, such as rabbits, mice, and dogs, have been used to develop animal models of hanging. Limited human studies on cadavers and judicial hangings have provided some additional insight into the pathophysiology of death by hanging. The main pathophysiological theories described were respiratory asphyxia, interruption to cerebral blood flow because of occlusion of vessels in the neck, and cardiac inhibition secondary to nerve stimulation. The relative contributions of each of these theories to death in cases of hanging is still debated today. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Desranleau S.,Clinique Dentaire Desranleau Inc. | Dorion R.B.J.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

Unsupported excised skin may shrink by as much as 50% or more. In 1981, a method was developed for ring adhesion to skin with the goal of minimizing tissue distortion upon excision. Five modified versions of the technique bearing the author's name followed (Dorion types I, II, III, IV, and V). The scientific literature reveals little supporting empirical evidence for the preferential use of one adhesive/suturing technique over another. This study compares the use of various bonding materials (Loctite Super Glue gel®, Dermabond™, Vetbond™), cleaning agents (ethanol, dishwashing liquid, and shaving cream), and depilatory (Veet®) on the effects of ring adhesion to skin. The conclusions indicate that surface wetness is the most influential factor affecting ring adhesion to skin, followed by the type of bonding material, its "freshness," and by the cleaning agent used to prepare the skin. The use of a depilatory or shaving cream is to be avoided. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Milot E.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Courteau J.,Université de Sherbrooke | Crispino F.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Mailly F.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2015

In forensic genetics, a mixture of two or more contributors to a DNA profile is often interpreted using the inclusion probabilities theory. In this paper, we present a general formula for estimating the probability of inclusion (PI, also known as the RMNE probability) from a subset of visible alleles when dropouts are possible. This one-locus formula can easily be extended to multiple loci using the cumulative probability of inclusion. We show that an exact formulation requires fixing the number of contributors, hence to slightly modify the classic interpretation of the PI. We discuss the implications of our results for the enduring debate over the use of PI vs likelihood ratio approaches within the context of low template amplifications. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Godin A.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale | Kremer C.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale | Sauvageau A.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology | Year: 2012

The distinction of a suicidal hanging from a simulated hanging following a homicidal strangulation is highly challenging. The present study evaluates the fracture of the cricoid cartilage as a potential pointer toward homicide. Despite the numerous studies on neck structures fractures in hanging, this is the first study to concentrate on the cricoid cartilage. Neck structures fractures in all cases of suicidal hanging over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed (231 cases) and a comparison with homicidal hangings (4 cases) and homicidal no-hanging strangulations cases (52 cases) was performed. Overall, neck structures fractures were found in 23.4% of suicidal cases (54 cases). The cricoid cartilage was intact in all suicidal hangings. The general incidence of fractures in homicidal no-hanging strangulation was 65.4% (34 cases), with an incidence of fracture of the cricoid cartilage of 20.6%. By compiling studies from the literature, only one cricoid cartilage over 2700 suidical hanging cases was found, whereas an incidence of 5 to 20% is found for homicidal strangulation. It is therefore proposed that the presence of a fracture of the cricoid in an apparent suicidal hanging should be considered highly suspicious. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Boghossian E.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale | Tambuscio S.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale | Sauvageau A.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

There are still several areas of forensic pathology mainly based on tradition, with textbooks explaining and describing common knowledge that is not supported by modern research data. This study is intended to contribute to evidence-based data on nonchemical suffocation deaths in the forensic population aged more than 1 year. From 2000 to 2005, all autopsy cases were reviewed: age, gender, type of suffocation, and manner of death were compiled for all victims (96 cases). In general, the results from this study are concordant with the textbook literature, therefore supporting common knowledge related to manner of death in nonchemical suffocation. However, discrepancies have been underscored in smothering: smothering, contrary to the general belief, is probably not mostly homicidal, and accidental smothering is probably not that unusual. Furthermore, new data without actual literature correlates were obtained in the conducting of this study and are presented here. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Bush M.A.,Buffalo Lab | Cooper H.I.,5101 Washington St. | Dorion R.B.J.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

Prediction of dental characteristics from a bitemark (bitemark profiling) and arbitrary photographic distortion compensation are two practices proposed in bitemark analysis. Recent research on the effect of inherent skin tension properties in bitemark analysis suggests that these practices are subject to review. A biting apparatus was used to create 66 bitemarks in human cadaver skin. The bitemarks were photographed, sized 1:1, and evaluated with Adobe Photoshop®. Metric/angular measurements and hollow volume dental overlays were employed. Distortion produced was calculated and assessed. Results showed distortional ranges were nonuniform both between bites, as well as within each bite. Thus, enlarging/decreasing the photograph uniformly would not correct the distortion that resulted. With regard to bitemark profiling, 38% of the bites created patterns that could be misleading if profiled. Features were present/absent that were inconsistent with the biter's dentition. Conclusions indicate bitemark profiling and arbitrary distortion compensation may be inadvisable. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


More than 1600 paired-control tests data obtained on Alco-Sensor IV - RBT IV and Intoxilyzer® 5000 C have been reviewed. A quasi-normal distribution around the target value of 100 mg/100 mL was observed. Moreover, not only are instruments accurate, but they are also stable. In sequences of tests in real cases, paired data comparison of first (CTRL1) and second (CTRL2) control results showed a difference (CTRL1 - CTRL2) of zero in about one-third (1/3) of assays. The majority of cases (98.5%) were found to have a cumulative absolute difference of 3 mg/100 mL. In just one case, the difference between CTRL1 and CTRL2 was 10 mg/100 mL, the maximum acceptable in Quebec. Thus, although calibration checks of 95 to 105 mg/100 mL are acceptable, measurement uncertainty of these instruments should be considered well below 10 mg/100 mL in the great majority of cases.


Sauvageau A.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale | Boghossian E.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

The classification of asphyxia and the definitions of subtypes are far from being uniform, varying widely from one textbook to another and from one paper to the next. Unfortunately, similar research designs can lead to totally different results depending on the definitions used. Closely comparable cases are called differently by equally competent forensic pathologists. This study highlights the discrepancies between authors and tries to draw mainstream definitions, to propose a unified system of classification. It is proposed to classify asphyxia in forensic context in four main categories: suffocation, strangulation, mechanical asphyxia, and drowning. Suffocation subdivides in smothering, choking, and confined spaces/entrapment/vitiated atmosphere. Strangulation includes three separate forms: ligature strangulation, hanging, and manual strangulation. As for mechanical asphyxia, it encompasses positional asphyxia as well as traumatic asphyxia. The rationales behind this proposed unified model are discussed. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Bush M.A.,Buffalo Lab | Thorsrud K.,Buffalo Lab | Miller R.G.,Buffalo Lab | Dorion R.B.J.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale | Bush P.J.,Buffalo Lab
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

Knowledge of distortional properties of skin is important in bitemark analysis. Thus, the response of skin to stress from bites was investigated. Four sets of models were created from the dentition of one individual. Anterior teeth were systematically removed to vary contact surface area. A biting apparatus was constructed with an integrated load cell. Forty-six bites were created perpendicular to Langer lines on six cadavers. Rate of force application and bite pressure were controlled. Metric/angular measurement and hollow volume overlays were employed. Distortion produced by each dentition was calculated and assessed. Results showed that as teeth impressed loose tissue, mesial/distal distance increased, angles of rotation flattened, and inter-canine distance lengthened. An opposite effect was seen in tight tissue. When the surface area of the dentition was reduced, a mixture of these effects was observed. Conclusions indicated that stiffness of the tissue was the most important variable in bitemark distortion. © 2009 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Tambuscio S.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale | Boghossian E.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale | Sauvageau A.,Laboratoire Of Science Judiciaires Et Of Medecine Legale
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

In forensic sciences, the fate of abstracts presented at international meetings has not yet been assessed. The purpose of this study is to estimate publication ratio and evaluate possible predictors of publication after the 58th edition of the 2006 American Academy of Forensic Sciences annual meeting. Section of the meeting, type of presentation (oral platform or poster), number of authors per abstract and per paper, time span to publication, countries involved, and journal of publication were tabulated. A total of 623 abstracts were presented, from which 102 were subsequently published as a full paper. The overall publication rate was 16.4%, ranging from 3.4% (jurisprudence) to 28.8% (toxicology). The type of presentation (oral platform or poster) did not significantly affect the outcome of the abstract. However, a higher number of authors, foreign authors, and international collaboration were found to be good predictive factors of publication. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

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