Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique

Notre-Dame-de-Mésage, France

Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique

Notre-Dame-de-Mésage, France
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Bourges J.L.,Center dophtalmologie | Bourges J.L.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Robert A.M.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Robert A.M.,Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique | And 2 more authors.
Pathologie Biologie | Year: 2015

Oriented collagen biosynthesis is one of the major mechanisms involved in tissue and organ formation during development. Corneal biogenesis is one example. Defects in this process lead to anomalies in tissue structure and function. The transparency of cornea and its achievement are a good example as well as its pathological modifications. Keratoconus is one example of this type of pathologies, involving also inappropriate cross-linking of collagen fibers. Among the tentatives to correct this anomaly, the riboflavin-potentiated UV-cross-linking (CXL) of keratoconus corneas appears clinically satisfactory, although none of the experiments and clinical results published prove effective cross-linking. The published results are reviewed in this article. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.


Robert L.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Labat-Robert J.,Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique
Biogerontology | Year: 2014

Longevity is different for every animal species as well as their genome, suggesting a correlation between genes and life-span. Estimates put the genetic effect from 5 to 35 % approximately, suggesting that even genetic effects are dependent on environmental conditions. This contention is largely confirmed by the study of identical twins raised apart. They do not die at the same age and also for different reasons. Aging is not “genetically programmed”, it is outside evolutionary constraint. Evolution favors early and efficient reproduction, but does not care for longevity. A number of mechanisms were shown to be involved in the age-dependent decline of vital functions, among them the Maillard reaction (non-enzymatic glycosylation) and the age-dependent upregulation of proteolytic activity. Aging of ECM is a complex process, comprising progressive modification of its macromolecular components and of cell-matrix interactions. An important process is the uncoupling with age of the elastin-receptor from its “young” transmission pathway loosing all physiological effects, but enhancing free radical and elastase release. These processes contribute to age-related ECM degradation, production of matrikins (ECM degradation products with biological activity) aggravating functional loss with age. Both genetic and post-genetic mechanisms are susceptible to be influenced by medical, pharmacological and dietary interventions. Among the genetic mechanisms, those attributed to Sirtuins (7 orthologs identified in the human genome) are especially important. Among the environmental effects, nutrition, hygiene and weather conditions play a role. These data justify some predictions on the evolution of life expectancy taking in account also socio-economic factors. Biological constraints become evident by the comparison of centenarians and supercentenarians (less than 1 % of the centenarians) putting an upper limit to the attainable human lifespan. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Robert L.,Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique
Pathologie Biologie | Year: 2013

Serum haptoglobin (Hp) was discovered by Max Fernand Jayle as a young assistant professor in the Department of Biochemistry of the Paris Medical Faculty, headed by Professor Michel Polonovski. Jayle showed that Hp was an acute phase glycoprotein and worked out its routine determination in the blood-serum, based on its complex formation with hemoglobin, using the increased peroxidase activity of the hemoglobin-haptoglobin (Hb-Hp) complex, for routine determination in clinical biochemistry for the characterisation of inflammatory processes, together with other acute phase glycoproteins as orosomucoide. Later Smithies described the genetic control of human Hp-isoforms and quite recently Andersen et al. reported the elucidation of the crystal structure of the porcine Hb-Hp complex. In that article there was no mention of the discovery of Hp, neither of its determination in clinical biochemistry as an inflammatory marker. The only biologically significant role assigned to Hp by Andersen et al. is its (hypothetical) role to prevent or minimize the harmful effects of Hb during intravascular hemolysis, by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and complexing it. This shift of paradigm, not at all exceptional in medical biochemistry, will be described and discussed with its pitfalls and consequences. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Robert L.,Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique | Labat-Robert J.,Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique | Robert A.-M.,Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique
Pathologie Biologie | Year: 2010

The questions we were asked by Dr Edeas, president of the French Society of Antioxydants to discuss in this introductory lecture are the following: (a) the metabolism of glycation; (b) what are its consequences at the cellular level, and (c) their effect on health. As a recent and vast literature is available on these subjects, in the following we present a short survey of some basic data on the proposed subjects, insisting on our own experiments on the cytotoxicity of Maillard products and on a new approach to prevent the aggravation and acceleration of age-related diseases, essentially diabetes type II and its consequences on the cardiovascular system. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.


PubMed | Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Pathologie-biologie | Year: 2010

Hyaluronan, as most macromolecules of the extracellular matrix, are produced by the differentiated mesenchymal cells. These cells produce also enzymes degrading hyaluronan. This results in the presence of several hyaluronan pools of different molecular weights, all capable of interacting with surrounding cells, mediated by hyaluronan binding proteins and receptors. These interactions modulate cell phenotype and produce a variety of effects conditioning the specific functions of tissues. We shall discuss here several examples studied in our laboratory, concerning skin, cornea and the venous wall. Some of these actions might even be harmful, and could play an important role in aging of connective tissues with loss of function. Some of these age-dependent modifications mediated by hyaluronan will be reviewed and commented, especially the upregulation of matrix degrading enzymes as MMP-2 and MMP-9. We shall also mention some of our experiments for finding molecules capable of counteracting the harmful effects mediated by hyaluronan.


Robert L.,Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique | Robert A.-M.,Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique | Renard G.,Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique
Pathologie Biologie | Year: 2010

Hyaluronan, as most macromolecules of the extracellular matrix, are produced by the differentiated mesenchymal cells. These cells produce also enzymes degrading hyaluronan. This results in the presence of several hyaluronan pools of different molecular weights, all capable of interacting with surrounding cells, mediated by hyaluronan binding proteins and receptors. These interactions modulate cell phenotype and produce a variety of effects conditioning the specific functions of tissues. We shall discuss here several examples studied in our laboratory, concerning skin, cornea and the venous wall. Some of these actions might even be harmful, and could play an important role in aging of connective tissues with loss of function. Some of these age-dependent modifications mediated by hyaluronan will be reviewed and commented, especially the upregulation of matrix degrading enzymes as MMP-2 and MMP-9. We shall also mention some of our experiments for finding molecules capable of counteracting the harmful effects mediated by hyaluronan. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.


PubMed | Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pathologie-biologie | Year: 2013

Serum haptoglobin (Hp) was discovered by Max Fernand Jayle as a young assistant professor in the Department of Biochemistry of the Paris Medical Faculty, headed by Professor Michel Polonovski. Jayle showed that Hp was an acute phase glycoprotein and worked out its routine determination in the blood-serum, based on its complex formation with hemoglobin, using the increased peroxidase activity of the hemoglobin-haptoglobin (Hb-Hp) complex, for routine determination in clinical biochemistry for the characterisation of inflammatory processes, together with other acute phase glycoproteins as orosomucoide. Later Smithies described the genetic control of human Hp-isoforms and quite recently Andersen et al. reported the elucidation of the crystal structure of the porcine Hb-Hp complex. In that article there was no mention of the discovery of Hp, neither of its determination in clinical biochemistry as an inflammatory marker. The only biologically significant role assigned to Hp by Andersen et al. is its (hypothetical) role to prevent or minimize the harmful effects of Hb during intravascular hemolysis, by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and complexing it. This shift of paradigm, not at all exceptional in medical biochemistry, will be described and discussed with its pitfalls and consequences.


PubMed | Laboratoire Of Recherche Ophtalmologique
Type: Biography | Journal: Pathologie-biologie | Year: 2010

The questions we were asked by Dr Edeas, president of the French Society of Antioxidants to discuss in this introductory lecture are the following: (a) the metabolism of glycation; (b) what are its consequences at the cellular level, and (c) their effect on health. As a recent and vast literature is available on these subjects, in the following we present a short survey of some basic data on the proposed subjects, insisting on our own experiments on the cytotoxicity of Maillard products and on a new approach to prevent the aggravation and acceleration of age-related diseases, essentially diabetes type II and its consequences on the cardiovascular system.

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