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Biroccio A.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Biroccio A.,Regina Elena Cancer Institute | Cherfils-Vicini J.,Institut Universitaire de France | Augereau A.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | And 43 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology

Dysfunctional telomeres suppress tumour progression by activating cell-intrinsic programs that lead to growth arrest. Increased levels of TRF2, a key factor in telomere protection, are observed in various human malignancies and contribute to oncogenesis. We demonstrate here that a high level of TRF2 in tumour cells decreased their ability to recruit and activate natural killer (NK) cells. Conversely, a reduced dose of TRF2 enabled tumour cells to be more easily eliminated by NK cells. Consistent with these results, a progressive upregulation of TRF2 correlated with decreased NK cell density during the early development of human colon cancer. By screening for TRF2-bound genes, we found that HS3ST4 - A gene encoding for the heparan sulphate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulphotransferase 4 - was regulated by TRF2 and inhibited the recruitment of NK cells in an epistatic relationship with TRF2. Overall, these results reveal a TRF2-dependent pathway that is tumour-cell extrinsic and regulates NK cell immunity. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Falk A.T.,Center Antoine Lacassagne | Moncharmont C.,Institute Of Cancerologie Lucien Neuwirth | Moncharmont C.,Laboratoire Of Radiobiologie Cellulaire Et Moleculaire | Guilbert M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Bulletin du Cancer

Glioblastoma multiform is the most common and aggressive brain tumor with a worse prognostic. Ionizing radiation is a cornerstone in the treatment of glioblastome with chemo-radiation association being the actual standard. As a paradoxal effect, it has been suggested that radiotherapy could have a deleterious effect on local recurrence of cancer. In vivo studies have studied the effect of radiotherapy on biological modification and pathogenous effect of cancer cells. It seems that ionizing radiations with photon could activate oncogenic pathways in glioblastoma cell lines. We realized a review of the literature of photon-enhanced effect on invasion and migration of glioblastoma cells by radiotherapy. ©John Libbey Eurotext Source

Alphonse G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Alphonse G.,University of Lyon | Alphonse G.,Laboratoire Of Radiobiologie Cellulaire Et Moleculaire | Alphonse G.,Center Hospitalier Lyon Sud | And 19 more authors.
BMC Cancer

Background: To determine whether ceramide is responsible for the induction of p53-independent early or late apoptosis in response to high- and low-Linear-Energy-Transfer (LET) irradiation.Methods: Four cell lines displaying different radiosensitivities and p53-protein status were irradiated with photons or 33.4 or 184 keV/μm carbon ions. The kinetics of ceramide production was quantified by fluorescent microscopy or High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatogaphy and the sequence of events leading to apoptosis by flow cytometry.Results: Regardless of the p53-status, both low and high-LET irradiation induced an early ceramide production in radiosensitive cells and late in the radioresistant. This production strongly correlated with the level of early apoptosis in radiosensitive cells and delayed apoptosis in the radioresistant ones, regardless of radiation quality, tumor type, radiosensitivity, or p53-status. Inhibition of caspase activity or ceramide production showed that, for both types of radiation, ceramide is essential for the initiation of early apoptosis in radiosensitive cells and late apoptosis following mitotic catastrophe in radioresistant cells.Conclusions: Ceramide is a determining factor in the onset of early and late apoptosis after low and high-LET irradiation and is the mediator of the p53-independent-apoptotic pathway. We propose that ceramide is the molecular bridge between mitotic catastrophe and the commitment phase of delayed apoptosis in response to irradiation. © 2013 Alphonse et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Hanot M.,Laboratoire Of Radiobiologie Cellulaire Et Moleculaire | Boivin A.,Laboratoire Of Radiobiologie Cellulaire Et Moleculaire | Malesys C.,Laboratoire Of Radiobiologie Cellulaire Et Moleculaire | Beuve M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 5 more authors.

Poor local control and tumor escape are of major concern in head-and-neck cancers treated by conventional radiotherapy or hadrontherapy. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is suspected of playing an important role in mechanisms leading to radioresistance, and its depletion should enable oxidative stress insult, thereby modifying the nature of DNA lesions and the subsequent chromosomal changes that potentially lead to tumor escape. This study aimed to highlight the impact of a GSH-depletion strategy (dimethylfumarate, and L-buthionine sulfoximine association) combined with carbon ion or X-ray irradiation on types of DNA lesions (sparse or clustered) and the subsequent transmission of chromosomal changes to the progeny in a radioresistant cell line (SQ20B) expressing a high endogenous GSH content. Results are compared with those of a radiosensitive cell line (SCC61) displaying a low endogenous GSH level. DNA damage measurements (γH2AX/comet assay) demonstrated that a transient GSH depletion in resistant SQ20B cells potentiated the effects of irradiation by initially increasing sparse DNA breaks and oxidative lesions after X-ray irradiation, while carbon ion irradiation enhanced the complexity of clustered oxidative damage. Moreover, residual DNA double-strand breaks were measured whatever the radiation qualities. The nature of the initial DNA lesions and amount of residual DNA damage were similar to those observed in sensitive SCC61 cells after both types of irradiation. Misrepaired or unrepaired lesions may lead to chromosomal changes, estimated in cell progeny by the cytome assay. Both types of irradiation induced aberrations in nondepleted resistant SQ20B and sensitive SCC61 cells. The GSH-depletion strategy prevented the transmission of aberrations (complex rearrangements and chromosome break or loss) in radioresistant SQ20B only when associated with carbon ion irradiation. A GSH-depleting strategy combined with hadrontherapy may thus have considerable advantage in the care of patients, by minimizing genomic instability and improving the local control. © 2012 Hanot et al. Source

Moncharmont C.,Laboratoire Of Radiobiologie Cellulaire Et Moleculaire | Moncharmont C.,Institute Of Cancerologie Of La Lucien Neuwirth | Levy A.,GustaveRoussy | Guy J.-B.,Institute Of Cancerologie Of La Lucien Neuwirth | And 10 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology

Radiation therapy is a keystone treatment in cancer. Photon radiation has proved its benefits in overall survival in many clinical studies. However, some patients present local recurrences or metastases when cancer cells survive to treatment. Metastasis is a process which includes adhesion of the cell to the extracellular matrix, degradation of the matrix by proteases, cell motility, intravasation in blood or lymphatic vessels, extravasation in distant parenchyma and development of cell colonies. Several studies demonstrated that ionizing radiation might promote migration and invasion of tumor cells by intricate implications in the micro-environment, cell-cell junctions, extracellular matrix junctions, proteases secretion, and induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This review reports various cellular pathways involved in the photon-enhanced cell invasion process for which potential therapeutic target may be employed for enhancing antitumor effectiveness. Understanding these mechanisms could lead to therapeutic strategies to counter the highly invasive cell lines via specific inhibitors or carbon-ion therapy. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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