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Atti N.,Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres | Maamouri O.,Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres | Maamouri O.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem | Hajji H.,Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation on milk production from local goats and kid's growth. Fourty five females of the local Tunisian breed were used in the experiment. Animals were divided into three homogeneous groups of 15 animals each. Goats for control group were reared on grazing pasture and received indoor 0.5 kg of oat hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. Goats for the second (Cac-CC) group were kept in feedlot and fed spineless cactus ad libitum, they received as the control group 0.5 kg of the same hay and 0.4 kg of the same concentrate. The last group (Cac-TS) was also kept indoor and fed spineless cactus at libitum more 0.5 kg of the same hay and 0.2 kg of soybean meal. The results from this experiment showed that feeding system affected growth kids, average daily gain during the first month was 64 vs. 32 g / d for grazing and Cac-CC kids, respectively. The daily milk production averaged 485 and 407 ml for control group and for ones receiving spineless cactus (Cac-CC and Cac-TS) without significant differences. The protein content was not affected by feeding system, it averaged 2.7%, while fat content was significantly (Pr <0.01) different between experimental groups, 3.9, 3.7 and 3.1% for control, Cac-TS and Cac-CC group, respectively.

Ayeb N.,Gabes University | Ayeb N.,Institute Superieur Agronomique | Seddik M.,Gabes University | Atti N.,Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres | And 7 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2016

Native genetic resource of goats is a pivotal source for meat and milk in southern Tunisia. Feeding is one of the most important activities of goat husbandry. Perceptions on the role of native feed resources for growth and carcass characteristics have not been well studied. Therefore, the present study was designed to help understand and to compare the influences of local forage resources (grass hay, dried olive leaves, Stipa tenacissima and oat hay) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of kids. The kids with the age of 4 months (average live bodyweight of 15 ± 58 kg) were selected for the study. The three study groups in the 90-day trial were as follows: Group C, where animals received oat hay only (control), Group OL, where animals received olive leaves (dried) + S. tenacissima and Group GH, where animals received grass hay. A daily allowance of commercially available concentrate (305 g DM/day) was offered to all groups (making about half of the total DM intake). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered. Statistical analysis showed that total DM intake was lower (P < 0.001) in C group (490.77 g) than the other two groups having similar DM intake (619.22 and 589.28 g for OL and GH, respectively). Average daily gain was comparable for the three groups (38.33, 40.71 g and 39.52, respectively, for C, OL and GH), with similar final liveweights. Cold carcass weight and carcass yield were not affected by diet treatment. Diet had no significant effect on individual organ weights and carcass composition. The use of the local forage resources evaluated in this trial could be used for the local goat population without loss of productivity when they make up about half of the diet along with a concentrate feed. © CSIRO 2016.

Atti N.,Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres | Mahouachi M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011

This review summarises the main factors that influence meat production and quality in fat-tailed Barbarine (FTB) lambs. As a general feature, FTB lamb's growth is moderate, and the average daily gain ranges between 100 and 350 g. The carcass being relatively fatty, carcass fat content varies from 10% to 32%; white fat and rose meat are often dominant in these carcasses. The meat fatty acid profile of this fat-tailed breed is similar to that of thin-tailed ones, with a prevalence of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. The order of dissected adipose tissues accumulation, estimated by allometry coefficients, is in agreement with observations in thin-tailed sheep. However, tail fat allometry coefficient is closer to kidney fat values rather than to the subcutaneous one. Concerning effects of feed level, growth of FTB lambs fed silage is higher than those fed oat hay. With moderate concentrate supply, FTB lambs' growth is more pronounced on pasture diet than on the feedlot (FL) diet. Furthermore, at similar slaughter weights, carcasses of lambs fed pasture diet have less tail and carcass fat than those from lambs fed FL diet (5% and 18% vs. 9% and 24% for grazing and FL lambs, respectively). No difference in fat colour, fat firmness or cooked meat flavour is observed between carcasses obtained at different slaughtering weight (i.e. from 25 to 35 kg). The tail docking of FTB improved lambs' growth particularly before weaning. Its effect on carcass composition and fat proportion depends on stage of slaughtering and type of fattening diet. For suckled lambs (4 months), the docking resulted in the lower carcass fat weight (and proportion), while for fattened lambs, carcass composition was similar for all types of lambs. Overall, FTB lambs always grow slower than Noire de Thibar lambs. This is particularly pronounced during the fattening phase. Then, for FTB breed, the possibilities to obtain heavy carcasses are at risks of fat accumulation, 22.8% vs. 14.4% for FTB and Noire de Thibar thin-tailed lambs, respectively. However, the main advantage of FTB breed is that adults are well adapted to food scarcity and may produce lambs even under harsh conditions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Smeti S.,Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres | Smeti S.,University of Carthage | Atti N.,Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres | Mahouachi M.,ESA Kef | Munoz F.,CITA
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to determine the increase in shelf life of fresh Barbarine lamb's meat due to the effect of rosemary essential oils (RE) dietary. Thirty-two Barbarine lambs (19.9. kg body weight (BW)) were divided into 2 homogeneous groups receiving 50% dried alfalfa and 50% concentrate. Two types of concentrate were used, the Control (C) and the experimental, which corresponds to C with 0.06% of RE. At the end of the experiment (60 days), all animals were slaughtered. Lipid oxidation (TBARS) and color coordinates of longissimus dorsi (LD) of fresh lamb meat were analyzed on days 1, 3, 7 and 9.The RE incorporation has not affected the ultimate pH and cooking losses. TBARS values significantly increased for both treatments with storage time without any significant effect of regimen. At the ninth day of storage, meat of RE group tended to have higher redness (a*) and lower yellowness (b*) values (11.49 and 5.35 for RE vs. 10.30 and 5.58 for C). Lightness (L*) of meat from both treatments was in the range of acceptability (42-38) throughout the storage period. Panelists reported no significant effect of RE addition on the eating quality of lamb meat which was generally acceptable. The results showed that the dose rate of RE used in the present study did not affect lipid oxidation and had no significant effect against lamb meat discoloration across the storage period. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Hamouda M.B.,Institution Of La Recherche Et Of Lenseignement Superieur Agricoles | Atti N.,Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011

A total of 695 fat-tailed Barbarine lambs born in two flocks between 1995 and 1997 were recorded for growth and fat tail measurements according to " standard growth recording protocol" Recorded traits are body weight (BW) and the following fat tail characteristics: upper circumference (UFTC), lower circumference (LFTC), upper width (UFTW), lower width (LFTW), upper depth (UFTD), lower depth (LFTD) and tail length (FTL). Lamb body growth performance and tail measurements are analyzed from two points of view. Firstly through the adjustment of a growth curve chosen among the following: Brody, Logistic, Gompertz and Bertalanffy functions. Secondly, age-adjusted weight and tail measurements (10, 30 and 70 days) were analyzed and average daily gains (ADG) were calculated. All functions (Brody, Logistic, Gompertz and Bertalanffy) fitted closely body weight and fat tail measurements of Barbarine lambs for the recording period (up to 120 days), while the Bertalanffy function provided more accurate estimation of the asymptotic value (adult size) for the weight and tail measurements. High significant correlations (p< 0.01) were obtained between body weight and tail measurements. However, the LFTW-ADG had the highest correlation with BW performance, and was therefore the best indicator of the state of lamb fattening. Furthermore, the LFTW-ADG recorded between 10 and 30 days of age has a higher correlation with lamb BW performance at later age (30-70 days) than those recorded at the same period (between 10 and 30 days), indicating that lambs with higher fat storage during the suckling period express better performance at later ages. Therefore, this study confirms the role of the tail fat as an adaptive character of the Barbarine breed and most likely of other fat-tailed sheep breeds. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011

For this study, 28 lambs were allocated to four groups: two groups were raised in stalls and fed a hay-concentrate ration. The two remaining groups were reared on dry pasture and received concentrate in stalls. In each feeding system, two iso-nitrogen concentrates were used, soya bean and soya plus faba bean. At the end of the growth trial (77 days), all lambs were slaughtered. Samples of longissimus dorsi muscle were used for muscle analysis and fatty acid (FA) composition determination. Average daily gain (134g) was similar for all treatments. Stall lambs deposited significantly (p<0.001) more fat per day (13 vs 5g) and slightly more muscle (41 vs 35g) than pasture grazing ones; the first had more fat tissue (5.2kg) than the later (4.6kg). All these parameters were not influenced by nitrogen source. FA profile and meat characteristics were similar for all dietary treatments. It could be concluded that dry pasture did not affect meat quality but lead to the leaner lambs.

PubMed | Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of grain compared to spineless cactus feeding on goat kids growth, carcass characteristics and FA profile. For this purpose, 21 kids were used and allocated to 3 groups receiving a low quantity (200g) of oat hay. The control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter (C130). The second group received half of that contained consumed by the control one but its CP content was 260g/kg DM and spineless cactus ad libitum (C260-Cac). In the third group, concentrate intake was limited to soya bean at a quantity that provided the same CP quantity as the two other groups and also cached spineless cactus was distributed ad libitum (Soya-Cac). Animals of all groups had free access to water. At the end of the growth trial which lasted for 74 days, all kids were slaughtered. Samples of longissimus dorsi muscle were used for meat quality and FA composition study. Animals in the control group and those in the C260-Cac had higher growth rate than Soya-Cac diet animals. Muscle and adipose tissue mean weights were higher in the first groups while the bone weight was similar in all treatments. Animals given Soya-Cac diet had relatively less fat (10.5%) than those fed other diets (p<0.001). Carcass fat content tended to be lower (p=0.07) in C260-Cac goats (13.5%) than in those of the C130 group (15.8%). The ultimate pH ranged between 6.18 and 6.48; it was higher in meat from control goats (C130) than in animals receiving cactus. Dietary treatment had no significant effect (p>0.05) on meat moisture, ash, crude fat and protein contents. The intra muscular lipid composition in fatty acids showed differences between the control group and those receiving cactus. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as well as a higher proportion of PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio than control ones. In conclusion, this study showed that cactus feeding of goat kids maximises the proportion of CLA, PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio.

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