Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique

Marseille, France

Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique

Marseille, France
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Bresson F.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | Ducouret J.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | Peyre J.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Marechal C.,University of Valenciennes and Hainaut‑Cambresis | Delille R.,University of Valenciennes and Hainaut‑Cambresis
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

We study in this paper the expanding behaviour of hollow point 9mm Parabellum projectiles (Hornady XTP ® and Speer Gold Dot ®). We defined a deformation rate that takes into account both the diameter increase and the length reduction. We plotted the behaviour of this parameter versus impact velocity (we refer to this curve as the expanding law). This expanding law has been plotted for different gelatin weight ratios and different gelatin block lengths. We completed our experiments with a set of high speed movies in order to correlate the deceleration to the state of expansion and size of the temporary cavity. Our results pointed out that full expansion is reached shortly after the projectile fully penetrates the gelatin. This result shows that the key point to accurately simulate human body interaction with a hollow point projectile is to accurately simulate the interface (skin, skull, clothes thoracic walls). Simulating accurately organs is only an issue if a quantitative comparison between penetration depths is required, but not if we only focus on the state of expansion of the projectile. By varying the gelatin parameters, we discovered that the expanding law exhibits a velocity threshold below which no expansion occurs, followed by a rather linear curve. The parameters of that expanding law (velocity threshold and line slope) vary with the gelatin parameters, but our quantitative results demonstrate that these parameters are not extremely critical. Finally, our experiments demonstrate that the knowledge of the expansion law can be a useful tool to investigate a gunshot in a human body with a semi-jacketed projectile, giving an estimation of the impact velocity and thus the shooting distance. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Celorrio D.,University of the Basque Country | Bujanda L.,University of the Basque Country | Chbel F.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | Sanchez D.,Metropolitan Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2011

Background: Genes ADH1B and ADH1C have certain functional SNPs that are related to alcoholism. The frequencies of these polymorphisms vary between populations, so studying them in populations made up of groups with different phylogeographic origins requires an individualized analysis of each group. In the Basque Country, various recently arrived foreign groups live side by side with the original Southern European population, particularly North Africans from Morocco and Hispanics from Ecuador. This study sets out to examine the distribution of the frequencies of alleles that encode alcohol dehydrogenase with different metabolization rates, as higher rates make for greater susceptibility to alcoholism. Methods: Four SNPs: rs1229984, rs2066702, rs698, and rs1693482 using Taqman technology with a Rt-PCR were studied in a sample of 114 European individuals originating from the Basque Country, 100 North Africans from Morocco, and 109 Hispanics from Ecuador. The allele and genotype frequencies were calculated using Genepop v4.0. The most frequent haplotypes were estimated using the ELB algorithm with Arlequin v3.01. A breakdown of the complete disequilibrium commonly observed between the 2 missense polymorphisms that distinguish the common ADH1C alleles rs698 and rs1693482 was observed and confirmed by sequencing in 2 individuals from the Basque Country. Results: A higher frequency of protective allele ADH1C *1 was found in the North African population group. Haplotype combinations are also studied, and the rare association of alleles ADH1B *2-ADH1C *2 was observed in the Southern European group in the Basque Country, along with an allele not hitherto described in the ADH1C locus. Conclusions: This study provides the first data published on the allele and genotype frequencies of the ADH1C locus in the Moroccan population and on the ADH1B and ADH1C loci in the Ecuadorian population. The study shows differences in the distribution of the frequency of allele ADH1C *1 between the Basque Country and Moroccan populations, and a new allele not described to date. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.


Massonnet G.,Institute Of Police Scientifique Ips | Buzzini P.,Institute Of Police Scientifique Ips | Monard F.,Institute Of Police Scientifique Ips | Jochem G.,Bundeskriminalamt | And 19 more authors.
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

A collaborative study on Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP) was carried out by members of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) European Fibres Group (EFG) on different dyed cotton fabrics. The detection limits of the two methods were tested on two cotton sets with a dye concentration ranging from 0.5 to 0.005% (w/w).This survey shows that it is possible to detect the presence of dye in fibres with concentrations below that detectable by the traditional methods of light microscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP). The MSP detection limit for the dyes used in this study was found to be a concentration of 0.5% (w/w). At this concentration, the fibres appear colourless with light microscopy. Raman spectroscopy clearly shows a higher potential to detect concentrations of dyes as low as 0.05% for the yellow dye RY145 and 0.005% for the blue dye RB221. This detection limit was found to depend both on the chemical composition of the dye itself and on the analytical conditions, particularly the laser wavelength.Furthermore, analysis of binary mixtures of dyes showed that while the minor dye was detected at 1.5% (w/w) (30% of the total dye concentration) using microspectrophotometry, it was detected at a level as low as 0.05% (w/w) (10% of the total dye concentration) using Raman spectroscopy.This work also highlights the importance of a flexible Raman instrument equipped with several lasers at different wavelengths for the analysis of dyed fibres. The operator and the set up of the analytical conditions are also of prime importance in order to obtain high quality spectra. Changing the laser wavelength is important to detect different dyes in a mixture. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Baillif-Couniou V.,Institute Of Medecine Legale | Kintz P.,X Pertise Consulting | Sastre C.,Institute Of Medecine Legale | Pok P.-R.P.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2015

Morphine sulfate misuse is essentially observed among regular heroin injectors. To our knowledge, primary addiction to morphine sulfate is exceptional, especially among young adolescents. A 13-year-old girl, with no history of addiction, was found dead with three empty blisters of Skenan® LP 30 mg at her side. Opiates were detected in biological fluids and hair by chromatographic methods. Blood analyses confirmed morphine overdose (free morphine: 428 ng/mL; total morphine: 584 ng/mL) and segmental hair analysis confirmed regular exposure over several months (maximum morphine concentration 250 pg/mg). Suspecting the victim's mother of recreational use of Skenan®, the magistrate ordered analysis of her hair, with negative results. From an epidemiological viewpoint, this case of oral morphine sulfate abuse in an adolescent with no previous history suggests the emergence of a new trend of morphine sulfate consumption. From a toxicological viewpoint, it demonstrates the value of hair testing, which documented the victim's regular exposure and made an important contribution to the police investigation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Institute Of Medecine Legale, X Pertise Consulting, Laboratoire TOXLAB, Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique and Aix - Marseille University
Type: | Journal: Journal of forensic and legal medicine | Year: 2015

Morphine sulfate misuse is essentially observed among regular heroin injectors. To our knowledge, primary addiction to morphine sulfate is exceptional, especially among young adolescents. A 13-year-old girl, with no history of addiction, was found dead with three empty blisters of Skenan() LP 30mg at her side. Opiates were detected in biological fluids and hair by chromatographic methods. Blood analyses confirmed morphine overdose (free morphine: 428ng/mL; total morphine: 584ng/mL) and segmental hair analysis confirmed regular exposure over several months (maximum morphine concentration 250pg/mg). Suspecting the victims mother of recreational use of Skenan(), the magistrate ordered analysis of her hair, with negative results. From an epidemiological viewpoint, this case of oral morphine sulfate abuse in an adolescent with no previous history suggests the emergence of a new trend of morphine sulfate consumption. From a toxicological viewpoint, it demonstrates the value of hair testing, which documented the victims regular exposure and made an important contribution to the police investigation.


Laouina A.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | Laouina A.,Hassan II University | El Houate B.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | Yahia H.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | And 3 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

Allele frequencies and population data for 17 Y-STR loci included in the AmpFlSTR® Y-filer™ PCR amplification kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA), that permit the simultaneous amplification of all the markers included in the actually used European "extended haplotype", DYS19, DYS189I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385I/II, DYS438, DYS439 and also DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y GATA H4, were obtained from a sample of 166 healthy unrelated males resident in Casablanca (from Morocco). A total of 166 haplotypes were identified, of which 142 were unique. The overall haplotype diversity for the 17 Y-STR loci reached 0.9974, and a discrimination capacity was 0.855. We report some non-standard situations, including duplications and microvariant alleles. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Laouina A.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | Laouina A.,Hassan II University | Nadifi S.,Hassan II University | Boulouiz R.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | And 5 more authors.
Legal Medicine | Year: 2013

Precise knowledge of mutation rate at Y-STRs loci is essential for a correct evaluation of typing results in forensic casework and specially kinship genetic studies. In this study, we have examined 252 confirmed and unrelated father/son sample pairs from Moroccan population using the 17 Y-STR markers DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a, DYS385b, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, and Y-GATA-H4 of the AmpFlSTR Yfiler™ kit used in routine casework. We observed a total of 15 single repeat mutations between fathers and sons as mutational events. Nine mutations resulted in the gain of a repeat in the son and six resulted in a loss of a repeat. The average mutation rate in the studied sample is 3.5×10-3 (95% CI 2-5.8×10-3). Furthermore, Y-STRs mutation occurrence seems to be 4 times more frequent than autosomal STRs mutation in this sample. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Bresson F.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique | Franck O.,Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique
Forensic Science International | Year: 2010

This paper demonstrates how ballistic experiments on body simulator can bring a key information in the forensic science field. In the investigated case, a hunter was shot by accident in the back. Two hunters were suspected of having inadvertently shot towards the victim. The deadly bullet left the body and cannot be found on the scene neither in the body. The only way to discriminate the two options was to perform ballistic tests in body simulators. Even though the knowledge about body simulators is not enough advanced yet to expect accurate quantitative results, it was supposed to fully discriminate the two investigated cases as its respective impact energy are highly different (respectively 1200. J and 2400. J). For each investigated possibility, bullet's expansion state and body wounds were simulated. Bullet impact characteristics were determined by measuring the muzzle velocity, compute the impact velocity in the considered range (the position of each hunter is accurately known). Reloading cartridges allowed to reproduce accuretaly the corresponding velocity. The body was simulated by 3 different means in order to explore the accuracy of the simulation process. We demonstrated that the reported case is situated in a velocity/energy range in which body simulators do not need to be particularly accurate to reproduce the bullet expansion/non-expansion state. It furthermore demonstrated that only one case is compatible with the ballistic wounds of the victim. In the other case, the bullet's expansion would lead to a completely different wound shape. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Laboratoire Of Police Scientifique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Forensic science international | Year: 2010

This paper demonstrates how ballistic experiments on body simulator can bring a key information in the forensic science field. In the investigated case, a hunter was shot by accident in the back. Two hunters were suspected of having inadvertently shot towards the victim. The deadly bullet left the body and cannot be found on the scene neither in the body. The only way to discriminate the two options was to perform ballistic tests in body simulators. Even though the knowledge about body simulators is not enough advanced yet to expect accurate quantitative results, it was supposed to fully discriminate the two investigated cases as its respective impact energy are highly different (respectively 1200J and 2400J). For each investigated possibility, bullets expansion state and body wounds were simulated. Bullet impact characteristics were determined by measuring the muzzle velocity, compute the impact velocity in the considered range (the position of each hunter is accurately known). Reloading cartridges allowed to reproduce accuretaly the corresponding velocity. The body was simulated by 3 different means in order to explore the accuracy of the simulation process. We demonstrated that the reported case is situated in a velocity/energy range in which body simulators do not need to be particularly accurate to reproduce the bullet expansion/non-expansion state. It furthermore demonstrated that only one case is compatible with the ballistic wounds of the victim. In the other case, the bullets expansion would lead to a completely different wound shape.

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