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Plouzané, France

Sanders P.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | Bousquet-Melou A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bousquet-Melou A.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Bousquet-Melou A.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | And 4 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2011

Antibiotics used as veterinary drugs must be prescribed for treatment of animal disease of bacterial origin. Veterinary practitioners are responsible for the prudent use of antibiotics and they must base their prescription on medical evidence combining epidemiological knowledge, laboratory results and professional experience. Any use of antibiotics creates a selective pressure favorable for any resistant bacteria (pathogenic or commensal). Several epidemiological systems have been built to monitor antibiotic resistance and antibiotic usage in France in order to assess the type of usage and their frequency as well as the level of resistance in main bacterial species. This data collection is being completed by research activities on the genes and mechanisms of resistance, on antibiotic pharmacology and also on the pharmaco-epidemiology study of the relationship between antibiotic use, prevention of disease and emergence and dissemination of resistance.

Moraru R.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Iasi | Pourcher A.-M.,IRSTEA | Pourcher A.-M.,European University of Brittany | Jadas-Hecart A.,University of Angers | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the impact of storing chicken manure on the degradation of enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), and on the survival of CIP-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. At 24 d of age, half of 8900 chickens received ENR for 5 d. Aft er the animals departed, their manure was stored in two heaps for 63 d. Enterobacteriaceae were cultured on media containing 0 to 32 mg L-1 of CIP. A total of 320 isolates were fingerprinted using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) to evaluate community structure. Initial concentrations of ENR and CIP in the heap were 22 and 1.8 mg kg-1, respectively. Seventythree percent of the two fluoroquinolones were eliminated during storage. The administration of ENR led to a 5.1 log10 decrease in Enterobacteriaceae concentrations and emergence of CIP-resistant bacteria, which became dominant in the feces. Enterobacteriaceae concentrations decreased 1.2 to 2.3 log10 2 d aft er the heaps were made and continued to decline during storage. No resistant Enterobacteriaceae were found by Day 63. The highest CIP minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values observed among isolates of Escherichia coli and of both Proteus mirabilis and Providencia sp. were 128 and 4 mg L-1, respectively. The dominant ERIC-PCR profiles changed over time. There was no relationship between genotype and resistance-isolated strains to CIP. Storing chicken manure in heaps appeared to be an effective way of limiting the entrance of CIP-resistant E. coli into the environment but did not prevent the dissemination of fluoroquinolones aft er land spreading. © 2012 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

Dheilly A.,Laboratoire Of Ploufragan | Dheilly A.,University of Rennes 1 | Le Devendec L.,Laboratoire Of Ploufragan | Mourand G.,Laboratoire Of Ploufragan | And 4 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

An experiment was conducted in animal facilities to compare the impacts of four avian colibacillosis treatments - oxytetracycline (OTC), trimethoprim-sulfadimethoxine (SXT), amoxicillin (AMX), or enrofloxacin (ENR) - on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli in broiler intestinal tracts. Birds were first orally inoculated with rifampin-resistant E. coli strains bearing plasmid genes conferring resistance to fluoroquinolones (qnr), cephalosporins (bla CTX-M or bla FOX), trimethoprim-sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, or tetracyclines. Feces samples were collected before, during, and after antimicrobial treatments. The susceptibilities of E. coli strains were studied, and resistance gene transfer was analyzed. An increase in the tetracycline-resistant E. coli population was observed only in OTC-treated birds, whereas multiresistant E. coli was detected in the dominant E. coli populations of SXT-, AMX-, or ENR-treated birds. Most multiresistant E. coli strains were susceptible to rifampin and exhibited various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, suggesting the transfer of one of the multiresistance plasmids from the inoculated strains to other E. coli strains in the intestinal tract. In conclusion, this study clearly illustrates how, in E. coli, "old" antimicrobials may coselect antimicrobial resistance to recent and critical molecules. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

King K.,Institute for Animal Health Pirbright Laboratory | King K.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Chapman D.,Institute for Animal Health Pirbright Laboratory | Argilaguet J.M.,Institute for Animal Health Pirbright Laboratory | And 12 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

African swine fever (ASF) is an acute haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs for which there is currently no vaccine. We showed that experimental immunisation of pigs with the non-virulent OURT88/3 genotype I isolate from Portugal followed by the closely related virulent OURT88/1 genotype I isolate could confer protection against challenge with virulent isolates from Africa including the genotype I Benin 97/1 isolate and genotype X Uganda 1965 isolate. This immunisation strategy protected most pigs challenged with either Benin or Uganda from both disease and viraemia. Cross-protection was correlated with the ability of different ASFV isolates to stimulate immune lymphocytes from the OURT88/3 and OURT88/1 immunised pigs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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