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Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône, France

Verreault M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Verreault M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Verreault M.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Verreault M.,Institute Du Cerveau Et Of La Moelle Epiniere | And 62 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2016

Purpose: p53 pathway alterations are key molecular events in glioblastoma (GBM). MDM2 inhibitors increase expression and stability of p53 and are presumed to be most efficacious in patients with TP53 wild-type andMDM2-amplified cancers. However, this biomarker hypothesis has not been tested in patients or patient-derived models for GBM. Experimental Design: We performed a preclinical evaluation of RG7112 MDM2 inhibitor, across a panel of 36 patient-derived GBM cell lines (PDCL), each genetically characterized according to their P53 pathway status. We then performed a pharmacokinetic (PK) profiling of RG7112 distribution in mice and evaluated the therapeutic activity of RG7112 in orthotopic and subcutaneous GBM models. Results:MDM2-amplified PDCLs were 44 times more sensitive than TP53-mutated lines that showed complete resistance at therapeutically attainable concentrations (avg. IC50 of 0.52 mmol/L vs. 21.9 mmol/L). MDM4-amplified PDCLs were highly sensitive but showed intermediate response (avg. IC50 of 1.2 μmol/L), whereas response was heterogeneous in TP53 wild-type PDCLs with normal MDM2/4 levels (avg. IC50 of 7.7 μmol/L). In MDM2-amplified lines, RG7112 restored p53 activity inducing robust p21 expression and apoptosis. PK profiling of RG7112- treated PDCL intracranial xenografts demonstrated that the compound significantly crosses the blood-brain and the blood- tumor barriers. Most importantly, treatment of MDM2-amplified/TP53 wild-type PDCL-derived model (subcutaneous and orthotopic) reduced tumor growth, was cytotoxic, and significantly increased survival. Conclusions: These data strongly support development of MDM2 inhibitors for clinical testing in MDM2-amplified GBM patients. Moreover, significant efficacy in a subset of non-MDM2-amplified models suggests that additional markers of response to MDM2 inhibitors must be identified. © 2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

Delyon J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Delyon J.,University Paris Diderot | Varna M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Varna M.,University Paris Diderot | And 17 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

The aim of personalized medicine is to improve our understanding of the disease at molecular level and to optimize therapeutic management. In this context, we have developed in vivo and ex vivo preclinical strategies evaluating the efficacy of innovative drugs in melanomas. Human melanomas (n = 17) of different genotypes (mutated BRAF, NRAS, amplified cKIT and wild type) were successfully engrafted in mice then amplified by successive transplantations. The exhaustive characterization of patient-derived xenografts (PDX) at genomic level (transcriptomic and CGH arrays) revealed a similar distribution pattern of genetic abnormalities throughout the successive transplantations compared to the initial patient tumor, enabling their use for mutation-specific therapy strategies. The reproducibility of their spontaneous metastatic potential in mice was assessed in 8 models. These PDXs were used for the development of histoculture drug response assays (ex vivo) for the evaluation of innovative drug efficacy (BRAF and MEK inhibitors). The pharmacological effects of BRAF and MEK inhibitors were similar between PDX-derived histocultures and their corresponding PDX, on 2 models of BRAF and NRAS-mutated melanomas. These models constitute a validated, effective tool for preclinical investigation of new therapeutic agents, and improve therapeutic strategies in the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

Delyon J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Khayati F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Djaafri I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Djaafri I.,University Paris Diderot | And 12 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2015

EMMPRIN is known to promote tumor invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Here we report that EMMPRIN can regulate melanoma cell adhesion to the ECM through an interaction with β1 integrin involving kindlin-3. In this study, EMMPRIN knockdown in the human melanoma cell line M10 using siRNA decreased cell invasion and significantly increased cell adhesion and spreading. A morphological change from a round to a spread shape was observed associated with enhanced phalloidin-labelled actin staining. In situ proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation revealed that EMMPRIN silencing increased the interaction of β1 integrin with kindlin-3, a focal adhesion protein. This was associated with an increase in β1 integrin activation and a decrease in the phosphorylation of the downstream integrin kinase FAK. Moreover, the expression at both the transcript and protein level of kindlin-3 and of β1 integrin was inversely regulated by EMMPRIN. EMMPRIN did not regulate either talin expression or its interaction with β1 integrin. These results are consistent with our in vivo demonstration that EMMPRIN inhibition increased β1 integrin activation and its interaction with kindlin-3. To conclude, these findings reveal a new role of EMMPRIN in tumor cell migration through ß1 integrin/kindlin-3-mediated adhesion pathway. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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