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Fekkar A.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere | Fekkar A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Fekkar A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Fekkar A.,Laboratoire Of Mycologie Parasitologie | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

We report the direct genotyping analysis of Toxoplasma gondii in ocular samples collected from 20 patients, as well as associated clinical and epidemiological data. This work was aimed at better understanding the impact of genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii strains on toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. For this purpose, we studied the aqueous humor (AH) or vitreous humor (VH) of 20 patients presenting with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in 2 hospitals in France. Genetic characterization was obtained with microsatellite markers in a multiplex PCR assay. In contrast to the results of previous studies, we found no association between atypical Toxoplasma gondii genotypes and the occurrence of OT. Considering the local epidemiological data, our OT patients seemed to be infected more frequently by ordinary type II strains found in the environment. In conclusion, direct genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strains from aqueous or vitreous humor showed a predominance of the type II genotype in ocular toxoplasmosis; this may be due to a high exposure rate of this genotype in humans. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

Oliveira P.M.,Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica EBMSP | Mascarenhas R.E.,Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica EBMSP | Lacroix C.,Laboratoire Of Mycologie Parasitologie | Ferrer S.R.,Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica EBMSP | And 4 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. Objective: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifun-gal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil). Results: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7%) than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5%) (p = 0.02). The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03). Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3%) and uninfected women (85.7%), followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identifed. There was no significant diference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fuconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. Conclusion: Our results confrm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mu-cosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fuconazole. © Elsevier Editora Ltda.

Lefebvre M.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Alshawa K.,Laboratoire Of Mycologie Parasitologie | Dupont B.,University of Paris Descartes
Journal de Mycologie Medicale | Year: 2010

Statins are the most prescribed of all current drugs. They are currently used for hyperlipidaemia control and cardiovascular protection. Moreover, there is emerging evidence for the potential use of statins in reducing the risk of infections and infection severity. The hypothesis that widespread use of statins in patients with diabetes could explain the reduction of zygomycoses in this category of patients has even been recently proposed. Statins lower cholesterol levels through their action on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, an essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Fungal HMG-CoA reductase is also inhibited by statins, resulting in reduced levels of ergosterol and concomitant growth inhibition. Further effects of statins could also explain their antifungal activity. Statins exhibit in vitro antifungal activity against a range of yeasts and molds, especially Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and zygomycetes, but side effects and interaction of statins with immunosuppressant drugs and azoles could alter the benefits of their use. Moreover, in vivo evidence of antifungal activity is scarce. Conclusions regarding the relevance of the use of statins as antifungal agents should therefore wait for the achievement of studies in humans. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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