Casier J.-G.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences |
Devleeschouwer X.,Belgian Geological Survey |
Maillet S.,Laboratoire Of Paleontologie Stratigraphique |
Petitclerc E.,Belgian Geological Survey |
Preat A.,Roosevelt University
Bulletin of Geosciences | Year: 2013
Ostracods from the Sourd d'Ave section have been collected in the Moulin Boreux and Fort Hulobiet Members (Fromelennes Fm., Givet Group) and in the Pont d'Avignon Member (Nismes Fm., Frasnes Group). Ostracods collected in the Fromelennes Fm. by Milhau (1983a) and in the Nismes Fm. by Casier (1987a) have been also reviewed. Forty-four ostracod species are identified in the Fromelennes Fm. and 25 in the Nismes Fm. They belong exclusively to the Eifelian Mega-Assemblage, and several assemblages indicative of restricted and shallow marine, sometimes agitated, environments are recognized in the Fromelennes Fm. The great rarity of ostracods in the upper part of this formation provides evidence for less favourable lagoonal conditions probably related to increasing aridity at the end of the Givetian. In the Frasnes Group, assemblages are exclusively open marine and indicative of increasing water depth. The majority of ostracod species recognized in the Givet Group are missing in the base of the Frasnes Group as a consequence of the Frasnes Event. A systematic list of ostracods identified in the Fromelennes Fm. at Sourd d'Ave is published as an annex. Systematic sampling has been carried out in order to establish the sedimentological evolution of the environments and to detail the Givetian-Frasnian (G/F) transition. This allowed recognition of 13 microfacies types that replicate the standard sequence of Préat & Mamet (1989) from open marine shallow subtidal to restricted supratidal near emersion. The Boreux Member and the Fort Hulobiet Member display restricted facies (Amphipora, spongiostromid and algal bafflestones and bindstones, loferites with desiccation lumps) with poorly fossiliferous beds interbedded with higher energy peloidal and sometimes oolitic grainstone facies. Laminite horizons, sometimes with small-sized lateral linked hemispheroid stromatolites are uncommon, and are associated with dolomicrites showing pseudomorphs of evaporite minerals. These evaporitic facies become common in the upper part of the Fort Hulobiet Member suggesting the palaeoclimate became more arid at the G/F transition. Metre-scale cyclicity is pervasive throughout the Givetian part of the section. The boundary between the Givet Group and the Frasnes Group is very distinctive in the field, and is characterized by a transition from restricted evaporative lagoonal facies to open marine interbedded marly shales and nodular limestones. The upper part of the Fort Hulobiet Member consists of interbedded biostromes (semi-restricted stromatoporoid boundstones) followed by Amphipora floatstones, then fossil-poor units and restricted supratidal laminites with well-developed fenestral fabrics. The Frasnian Pont d'Avignon Member contains a rich faunal assemblage (bryozoans brachiopods, molluscs, nautiloids, tentaculitids) suggesting an abrupt drowning from the marginal Givetian carbonate platform into a Frasnian distal ramp or deep basinal environment below or near storm wave base.
Broly P.,University of Lille Nord de France |
Broly P.,Laboratoire Environnement and Sante |
Broly P.,Free University of Colombia |
Deville P.,University of Lille Nord de France |
And 5 more authors.
Evolutionary Ecology | Year: 2013
Living isopods of the suborder Oniscidea (commonly called woodlice) are the only group of Crustacea almost entirely composed of terrestrial forms. Furthermore, woodlice are completely independent from the aquatic environment from which they originally arose. From marine ancestors, woodlice are a key taxon to study the conquest of the land among arthropods because of their interesting gradation of morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations for terrestriality. However, the origin and evolution of this model group are still poorly known. Herein, we provide a synthesis of the oniscidean fossil record to replace this group in a deep-time context. Because members of the Oniscidea are difficult to fossilize, their fossil record alone is undoubtedly fragmentary and not representative of their complete evolutionary history, but it maintains an important relevance by providing reference points. To date, the first attested occurrences of Oniscidea are recorded from the Early Cretaceous. At this time, woodlice were already widely distributed (from Western Europe to Eastern Asia) with several species. By evaluating phylogenetic studies, palaeobiogeographic context of fossil specimens and current biological considerations, we discuss and support a pre-Pangaean origin of the Oniscidea, in the Late Paleozoic-most likely during the Carboniferous. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.