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Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, France

Fieni F.,University of Nantes | Fieni F.,CNPRC Infectious Diseases Unit | Pellerin J.L.,University of Nantes | Roux C.,University of Nantes | And 12 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

For each of the five fertilization trials of the experiment, frozen semen was prepared for in vitro capacitation at a concentration of 1 × 10 7 spz/ml and divided into three groups. One group was used as a control, while the two others were inoculated with 100 μl/ml of either culture medium from non-infected cells (placebo group) or cell culture medium containing virus at a concentration of 10 5 TCID 50/ml (infected group). A total of 789 oocytes were used for IVF. For each of the five trials a group of oocytes were used as a non-infected control and were found to be caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) free. The other oocytes were divided in two equal batches. Oocytes in the first batch were in vitro fertilized with CAEV infected sperm (infected group) and the second batch were fertilized with CAEV non-infected sperm (placebo and control groups). After IVF, the zygotes of each group were washed 12 times. The CAEV genome was not detected (using RT-PCR) in the washing media of either the control or placebo groups from each trial. In contrast, the first three washing media from the infected group were consistently found to be positive for the CAEV genome (5/5), whereas subsequent washing media were CAEV-free (P < 0.05). Zygotes obtained using all semen groups tested negative for both the provirus and genome of CAEV. These results clearly show that the first four washes were sufficient to remove viral particles from CAEV infected fertilization media and that CAEV-free embryos can be produced by IVF using spermatozoa infected in vitro by CAEV. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Paraud C.,Laboratoire Of Niort | Chartier C.,Laboratoire Of Niort
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2012

Cryptosporidiosis is an infection caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium which is responsible for a potentially severe disease in new-born ruminants. This infection is highly prevalent in small ruminants throughout the world, especially in pre-weaned animals. The clinical expression is different between goat kids and lambs, the infection being generally more severe in the former. Molecular data demonstrate geographical variations in the species of Cryptosporidium infecting small ruminants. They also support the possibility of transmission of zoonotic species from these hosts to humans. Studies are still needed on molecular epidemiology, especially in goats, and on ways to control infection. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hoste H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ehrhardt N.,Laboratoire Of Niort | Paraud C.,Laboratoire Of Niort | Rieux A.,Laboratoire Of Niort | And 9 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2012

Within Europe, the goat industry appears to have minor importance when compared to sheep or cattle productions, and the interest of research and studies in caprine pathology is limited. Here, this article is aimed at presenting the main research models in France, the current available data on the pathogenic mechanisms and the physiopathological processes and the related development of measures of management control using examples of pathologies caused by different agents (prions, viruses, bacteria, protozoan or helminthic parasites) that affect goats and their production. It is also aimed at underlining the interest of specific caprine studies not only as models of comparative pathology in small ruminants but also as tools that take into account the specific constraints of the dairy industry. Source

Paraud C.,Laboratoire Of Niort | Lorrain R.,Center dExperimentation Pour la Pepiniere Meridionale | Pors I.,Laboratoire Of Niort | Chartier C.,Laboratoire Of Niort
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2012

The environmental impact of Duddingtonia flagrans, a potential biological control agent for nematode parasites, was tested in a 2-year-plot study using goat faeces. The trial assessed the impact of fungal presence on the disintegration of faeces and on non-target, free-living soil nematode populations. Three groups of goats experimentally infected by Trichostrongylus colubriformis received three different doses of D. flagrans chlamydospores (0 chlamydospores/kg body weight (BW), 0.5 × 10 6 chlamydospores/kg BW or 5 × 10 6 chlamydospores/kg BW). One hundred grams of faeces containing T. colubriformis eggs and D. flagrans chlamydospores at three different concentrations were deposited on pasture plots on four different occasions: May 2003, September 2003, June 2004 and September 2004. Faeces were weighed 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks after deposit and immediately afterwards replaced to their initial positions. In addition, soil samples were taken just below faecal deposits to evaluate the impact of fungal presence on non-target free-living nematodes. Results showed that there was no treatment effect on the pellet degradation rate. Analysis of soil nematode fauna failed to demonstrate any effect of the dose rate of 0.5 × 10 6 chlamydospores/kg BW, while a reduction of the number of free-living nematodes was seen for the maximal chlamydospore concentration at autumn sets. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source

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