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Diedhiou A.G.,University of Lorraine | Diedhiou A.G.,Laboratoire Communications Of Microbiologie | Dupouey J.-L.,University of Lorraine | Buee M.,University of Lorraine | And 3 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The activities of nutrient-mobilising enzymes secreted by ectomycorrhizas of sessile oak (Quercus petraea) have been measured in 24 plots in a forested area in central France where many rural Gallo-Roman settlements (first to fifth centuries AD) have been discovered. Data have been related with tree growth and soil chemical properties. Although soil near the past settlements is still enriched in N and P, this does not always correspond to the higher productivity of oak trees. However, when this is the case, the ectomycorrhizal community displays higher chitinase, protease and phosphatase activities (involved in N and P mobilisation from soil organic matter). A few specialised ectomycorrhizal fungal species are responsible for this adaptation to the long-lasting modification of soil conditions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Perrineau M.M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Le Roux C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Galiana A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Faye A.,Laboratoire Communications Of Microbiologie | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Introducing nitrogen-fixing bacteria as an inoculum in association with legume crops is a common practice in agriculture. However, the question of the evolution of these introduced microorganisms remains crucial, both in terms of microbial ecology and agronomy. We explored this question by analyzing the genetic and symbiotic evolution of two Bradyrhizobium strains inoculated on Acacia mangium in Malaysia and Senegal 15 and 5 years, respectively, after their introduction. Based on typing of several loci, we showed that these two strains, although closely related and originally sampled in Australia, evolved differently. One strain was recovered in soil with the same five loci as the original isolate, whereas the symbiotic cluster of the other strain was detected with no trace of the three housekeeping genes of the original inoculum. Moreover, the nitrogen fixation efficiency was variable among these isolates (either recombinant or not), with significantly high, low, or similar efficiencies compared to the two original strains and no significant difference between recombinant and nonrecombinant isolates. These data suggested that 15 years after their introduction, nitrogen-fixing bacteria remain in the soil but that closely related inoculant strains may not evolve in the same way, either genetically or symbiotically. In a context of increasing agronomical use of microbial inoculants (for biological control, nitrogen fixation, or plant growth promotion), this result feeds the debate on the consequences associated with such practices. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Diedhiou A.G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Diedhiou A.G.,Laboratoire Communications Of Microbiologie | Diedhiou A.G.,British Petroleum | Selosse M.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

The diversity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on adult trees and seedlings of five species, Anthonotha fragrans, Anthonotha macrophylla, Cryptosepalum tetraphyllum, Paramacrolobium coeruleum and Uapaca esculenta, was determined in a tropical rain forest of Guinea. Ectomycorrhizae were sampled within a surface area of 1600 m2, and fungal taxa were identified by sequencing the rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer region. Thirty-nine ECM fungal taxa were determined, of which 19 multi-hosts, 9 single-hosts and 11 singletons. The multi-host fungi represented 92% (89% when including the singletons in the analysis) of the total abundance. Except for A. fragrans, the adults of the host species displayed significant differentiation for their fungal communities, but their seedlings harboured a similar fungal community. These findings suggest that there was a potential for the formation of common mycorrhizal networks in close vicinity. However, no significant difference was detected for the δ13C and δ15N values between seedlings and adults of each ECM plant, and no ECM species exhibited signatures of mixotrophy. Our results revealed (i) variation in ECM fungal diversity according to the seedling versus adult development stage of trees and (ii) low host specificity of ECM fungi, and indicated that multi-host fungi are more abundant than single-host fungi in this forest stand. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Merabet C.,Oran University of Science and Technology - Mohamed Boudiaf | Merabet C.,IRD Montpellier | Martens M.,Ghent University | Mahdhi M.,IRD Montpellier | And 11 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2010

Nine isolates from Argyrolobium uniflorum, Lotus creticus, Medicago sativa (Tunisia) and Lotus arabicus (Senegal) were analysed by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, glnA, gltA and thrC), the 16S rRNA gene and the nodulation gene nodA. Analysis of the individual and concatenated gene sequences demonstrated that the nine new strains constituted three stable, well-supported (bootstrap and gene sequence similarity values) monophyletic clusters, A, B and C, all belonging to the branch of the genus Ensifer, regardless of the phylogenetic reconstruction method used (maximum likelihood, maximum-parsimony, neighbour-joining). The three groups were further characterized by API 100 auxanographic tests, host specificity and nodA gene sequence analysis. On the basis of these data, clusters A and C are suggested as representing two novel species within the genus Ensifer, for which the names Ensifer numidicus sp. nov. (type strain ORS 1407T=LMG 24690 T=CIP 109850T) and Ensifer garamanticus sp. nov. (type strain ORS 1400T=LMG 24692T=CIP 109916T) are proposed. The cluster B strains were assigned to Ensifer adhaerens genomovar A. © 2010 IUMS.

Sene G.,Laboratoire Communications Of Microbiologie | Sene G.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Thiao M.,Laboratoire Communications Of Microbiologie | Thiao M.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | And 9 more authors.
African Journal of Ecology | Year: 2012

Several fast-growing and multipurpose trees such as exotic and valuable native species have been widely used in West Africa to reverse the tendency of massive degradation of plant cover and restore soil productivity. Although benefic effects have been reported on soil stabilization, a lack of information about their impact on soil symbiotic microorganisms still remains. This investigation has been carried out in field trees of 28 years old in a forest reserve at Bandia. To determine the mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP) of soils, a mycorrhizal bioassay was conducted using seedlings of Zea mays L. Spores concentration, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi morphotypes and mycorrhizal colonization of field plants were examined. Results showed that fungal communities were dominated in all samples by the genus Glomus. Nevertheless, the others genera Gigaspora and Scutellospora occurred preferentially out of the plantations. The number and richness of spores as well as the MIP of soils were decreased in the tree plantations. Accordingly, the amount of annual herbaceous plants kept out of the tree plantations was much greater than those under the tree plantations. The colonization was higher in field root systems of herb plants in comparison with that of the tree plants. Comparisons allowed us to conclude that vegetation type modifies the AM fungal communities, and the results suggest further adoption of management practices that could improve or sustain the development of herbaceous layers and thus promote the AM fungal communities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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