Bahloul N.,Laboratoire Of Mecanique Des Fluides Appliquee |
Kechaou N.,Laboratoire Of Mecanique Des Fluides Appliquee |
Mihoubi N.B.,University of Tunis
Grasas y Aceites | Year: 2014
This work presents a chemical (the minerals, chlorophyll contents and fatty acids) and thermophysical investigation (DSC profile) of four varieties of olive leaves grown in Tunisia. The total chlorophy1l contents of olive leaves ranged from 1132.33 to 1795.93 ppm. The results showed that linolenic acid (C18:3) is the major fatty acid in olive leaves (from 30.02 to 42.16%), followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C 16:0). The thermal profiles of olive leaf extracts determined by their DSC melting curves revealed simple thermograms with a single peak after melting. The hexane extract of the Chemchali variety, which contained relatively high unsaturated fatty acids and low saturated fatty acid levels, exhibited the lowest peak temperature value (54.59 °C) and required the smallest amount of energy for melting (31.57 J·g-1). This study showed that olive leaves possessed physicochemical properties and a fatty acid composition that may become interesting for industrial applications. © 2014 CSIC.
Dallali M.,Laboratoire Of Mecanique Des Fluides Appliquee |
Dallali M.,Metz National School of Engineering |
Guidara M.A.,Laboratoire Of Mecanique Des Fluides Appliquee |
Guidara M.A.,Metz National School of Engineering |
And 5 more authors.
Engineering Failure Analysis | Year: 2015
Consideration is given, in this paper, to the accurate numerical solution of transient flows in relatively long pipelines caused by the water hammer phenomenon. The governing equations for such flows are a set of two coupled non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations where the friction factor is a very important parameter. In these equations, the gravity force is introduced to take into account the pipeline inclination. The mathematical equations are solved in the time domain by the method of characteristics using linear integration. To reproduce correctly the transient flow, very small time increments were used in the constructed computer program. This program permits to get some systematic indications on the evolution and the damping of the pressure head waves due to a fast closing valve at the downstream end of a long pipeline. The study shows that results are different from those of short pipelines and small viscous fluids. To check the validity of the numerical model, computed results have been successfully compared with those found in the relevant literature. These results show that the gravity lift may have an important effect on the maximum pressures, which may become very important near the valve and cause failure of the pipeline especially in presence of defect. The safety factor, computed at equidistant sections of the line, determines the distance between the reservoir and the defect from which the failure may happen. For the considered application, results show that the pipeline is safe near the supply upstream tank. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.