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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Peyrefitte C.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Marianneau P.,Anses Laboratoire Of Lyon | Tordo N.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Bouloy M.,Institute Pasteur Paris
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2015

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the most widespread arboviruses in the world. It is present in Africa, south-east Europe, the Middle East and Asia. It is caused by a nairovirus (Bunyaviridae family) transmitted by several species of ticks. The geographical distribution of the disease coincides with the distribution of Hyalomma ticks. While infected livestock do not show signs of illness, humans are severely affected, with a high mortality rate. The most common symptoms are high fever, dizziness, headache, vomiting and haemorrhages. Pathogenesis studies in interferon-receptor-deficient mice indicated that the interferon response is crucial in controlling virus propagation and in protecting against the disease. Detection of the virus in biological material is currently performed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence are used to detect the presence of CCHF virus-specific antibodies. In the 1970s, a formalin-inactivated vaccine prepared from suckling mouse brain was used in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, but its efficacy remains to be proven. Treatment of patients with ribavirin is recommended by the World Health Organization, but it should be administered as early as possible. Although important progress has been made over the last few decades, many questions about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease are still to be addressed and there is a need to develop efficient vaccines and antivirals.

Taillebois E.,CNRS Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology | Alamiddine Z.,University of Nantes | Brazier C.,Anses Laboratoire Of Lyon | Graton J.,University of Nantes | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

Structural features and selected physicochemical properties of four common pesticides: acetamiprid (neonicotinoid), chlorpyriphos (organophosphate insecticide), deltamethrin (pyrethroid) and fipronil (phenylpyrazole) have been investigated by Density Functional Theory quantum chemical calculations. The high flexible character of these insecticides is revealed by the numerous conformers obtained, located within a 20 kJ mol-1 range in the gas phase. In line with this trend, a redistribution of the energetic minima is observed in water medium. Molecular electrostatic potential calculations provide a ranking of the potential interaction sites of the four insecticides. The theoretical studies reported in the present work are completed by comparative toxicological assays against three aphid strains. Thus, the same toxicity order for the two susceptible strains Myzus persicae 4106A and Acyrthosiphon pisum LSR1: acetamiprid > fipronil > deltamethrin > chlorpyriphos is revealed. In the resistant strain M. persicae 1300145, the toxicity order is modified: acetamiprid > fipronil > chlorpyriphos > deltamethrin. Interestingly, the strain 1300145 which is known to be resistant to neonicotinoids, is also less sensitive to deltamethrin, chlorpyriphos and fipronil. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Perea-Martinez L.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Perea-Martinez L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Moreno-Sandoval H.N.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Moreno-Altamirano M.M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | And 6 more authors.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus that primarily infects humans and Aedes sp. mosquitoes. However, viral replication in wild animals other than non-human primates has been scarcely studied. In this report, the susceptibility of Artibeus intermedius frugivorous bat to serotype-2 dengue virus (DENV-2) infection was tested. Twenty-three bats were intraperitoneally inoculated with different viral loads of DENV-2 (New Guinea-C strain). Forty-three percent of the infected bats developed bruises on the chest or on the wings. Histological analyses showed structural alterations in the spleen and bleeding in liver and intestine, but the virus was not detected by RT-PCR in any of the analyzed tissues, and it was found in only one bat (kidney) by semi-nested RT-PCR. In sera, the viral RNA was detected by semi-nested RT-PCR in 39% of bats, but only 8% of bats seroconverted. Overall, these data indicate that DENV-2 replicates poorly in these bats, suggesting they are not suitable hosts to this virus. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Castel G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Castel G.,Institute Of Biologie Computationnelle | Couteaudier M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sauvage F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 8 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2015

Puumala virus (PUUV) is the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. NE incidence presents a high spatial variation throughout France, while the geographical distribution of the wild reservoir of PUUV, the bank vole, is rather continuous. A missing piece of the puzzle is the current distribution and the genetic variation of PUUV in France, which has been overlooked until now and remains poorly understood. During a population survey, from 2008 to 2011, bank voles were trapped in eight different forests of France located in areas known to be endemic for NE or in area from where no NE case has been reported until now. Bank voles were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig)G ELISA serology and two seropositive animals for each of three different areas (Ardennes, Jura and Orleans) were then subjected to laboratory analyses in order to sequence the whole S, M and L segments of PUUV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that French PUUV isolates globally belong to the central European (CE) lineage although isolates from Ardennes are clearly distinct from those in Jura and Orleans, suggesting a different evolutionary history and origin of PUUV introduction in France. Sequence analyses revealed specific amino acid signatures along the N protein, including in PUUV from the Orleans region from where NE in humans has never been reported. The relevance of these mutations in term of pathophysiology is discussed. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Doceul V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lara E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sailleau C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Belbis G.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | And 15 more authors.
Veterinary Research | Year: 2013

After the unexpected emergence of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in northern Europe in 2006, another arbovirus, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), emerged in Europe in 2011 causing a new economically important disease in ruminants. The virus, belonging to the Orthobunyavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, was first detected in Germany, in The Netherlands and in Belgium in 2011 and soon after in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Denmark and Switzerland. This review describes the current knowledge on the emergence, epidemiology, clinical signs, molecular virology and diagnosis of SBV infection. © 2013 Doceul et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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