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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Peyrefitte C.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Marianneau P.,Anses Laboratoire Of Lyon | Tordo N.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Bouloy M.,Institute Pasteur Paris
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the most widespread arboviruses in the world. It is present in Africa, south-east Europe, the Middle East and Asia. It is caused by a nairovirus (Bunyaviridae family) transmitted by several species of ticks. The geographical distribution of the disease coincides with the distribution of Hyalomma ticks. While infected livestock do not show signs of illness, humans are severely affected, with a high mortality rate. The most common symptoms are high fever, dizziness, headache, vomiting and haemorrhages. Pathogenesis studies in interferon-receptor-deficient mice indicated that the interferon response is crucial in controlling virus propagation and in protecting against the disease. Detection of the virus in biological material is currently performed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence are used to detect the presence of CCHF virus-specific antibodies. In the 1970s, a formalin-inactivated vaccine prepared from suckling mouse brain was used in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, but its efficacy remains to be proven. Treatment of patients with ribavirin is recommended by the World Health Organization, but it should be administered as early as possible. Although important progress has been made over the last few decades, many questions about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease are still to be addressed and there is a need to develop efficient vaccines and antivirals. Source

Taillebois E.,CNRS Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology | Alamiddine Z.,University of Nantes | Brazier C.,Anses Laboratoire Of Lyon | Graton J.,University of Nantes | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry

Structural features and selected physicochemical properties of four common pesticides: acetamiprid (neonicotinoid), chlorpyriphos (organophosphate insecticide), deltamethrin (pyrethroid) and fipronil (phenylpyrazole) have been investigated by Density Functional Theory quantum chemical calculations. The high flexible character of these insecticides is revealed by the numerous conformers obtained, located within a 20 kJ mol-1 range in the gas phase. In line with this trend, a redistribution of the energetic minima is observed in water medium. Molecular electrostatic potential calculations provide a ranking of the potential interaction sites of the four insecticides. The theoretical studies reported in the present work are completed by comparative toxicological assays against three aphid strains. Thus, the same toxicity order for the two susceptible strains Myzus persicae 4106A and Acyrthosiphon pisum LSR1: acetamiprid > fipronil > deltamethrin > chlorpyriphos is revealed. In the resistant strain M. persicae 1300145, the toxicity order is modified: acetamiprid > fipronil > chlorpyriphos > deltamethrin. Interestingly, the strain 1300145 which is known to be resistant to neonicotinoids, is also less sensitive to deltamethrin, chlorpyriphos and fipronil. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Perea-Martinez L.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Perea-Martinez L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Moreno-Sandoval H.N.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Moreno-Altamirano M.M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | And 6 more authors.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus that primarily infects humans and Aedes sp. mosquitoes. However, viral replication in wild animals other than non-human primates has been scarcely studied. In this report, the susceptibility of Artibeus intermedius frugivorous bat to serotype-2 dengue virus (DENV-2) infection was tested. Twenty-three bats were intraperitoneally inoculated with different viral loads of DENV-2 (New Guinea-C strain). Forty-three percent of the infected bats developed bruises on the chest or on the wings. Histological analyses showed structural alterations in the spleen and bleeding in liver and intestine, but the virus was not detected by RT-PCR in any of the analyzed tissues, and it was found in only one bat (kidney) by semi-nested RT-PCR. In sera, the viral RNA was detected by semi-nested RT-PCR in 39% of bats, but only 8% of bats seroconverted. Overall, these data indicate that DENV-2 replicates poorly in these bats, suggesting they are not suitable hosts to this virus. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Castel G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Castel G.,Institute Of Biologie Computationnelle | Couteaudier M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sauvage F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 8 more authors.

Puumala virus (PUUV) is the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. NE incidence presents a high spatial variation throughout France, while the geographical distribution of the wild reservoir of PUUV, the bank vole, is rather continuous. A missing piece of the puzzle is the current distribution and the genetic variation of PUUV in France, which has been overlooked until now and remains poorly understood. During a population survey, from 2008 to 2011, bank voles were trapped in eight different forests of France located in areas known to be endemic for NE or in area from where no NE case has been reported until now. Bank voles were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig)G ELISA serology and two seropositive animals for each of three different areas (Ardennes, Jura and Orleans) were then subjected to laboratory analyses in order to sequence the whole S, M and L segments of PUUV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that French PUUV isolates globally belong to the central European (CE) lineage although isolates from Ardennes are clearly distinct from those in Jura and Orleans, suggesting a different evolutionary history and origin of PUUV introduction in France. Sequence analyses revealed specific amino acid signatures along the N protein, including in PUUV from the Orleans region from where NE in humans has never been reported. The relevance of these mutations in term of pathophysiology is discussed. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Dupinay T.,VetAgro Sup | Pounder K.C.,University of Liverpool | Ayral F.,VetAgro Sup | Laaberki M.-H.,VetAgro Sup | And 15 more authors.
Virology Journal

Background: Hantaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses, which are transmitted to humans primarily via inhalation of aerosolised virus in contaminated rodent urine and faeces. Whilst infected reservoir hosts are asymptomatic, human infections can lead to two clinical manifestations, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), with varying degrees of clinical severity. The incidence of rodent and human cases of Seoul virus (SEOV) in Europe has been considered to be low, and speculated to be driven by the sporadic introduction of infected brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) via ports. Methods. Between October 2010 and March 2012, 128 brown rats were caught at sites across the Lyon region in France. Results: SEOV RNA was detected in the lungs of 14% (95% CI 8.01 - 20.11) of brown rats tested using a nested pan-hantavirus RT-PCR (polymerase gene). Phylogenetic analysis supports the inclusion of the Lyon SEOV within Lineage 7 with SEOV strains originating from SE Asia and the previously reported French & Belgian SEOV strains. Sequence data obtained from the recent human SEOV case (Replonges) was most similar to that obtained from one brown rat trapped in a public park in Lyon city centre. We obtained significantly improved recovery of virus genome sequence directly from SEOV infected lung material using a simple viral enrichment approach and NGS technology. Conclusions: The detection of SEOV in two wild caught brown rats in the UK and the multiple detection of SEOV infected brown rats in the Lyon region of France, suggests that SEOV is circulating in European brown rats. Under-reporting and difficulties in identifying the hantaviruses associated with HFRS may mask the public health impact of SEOV in Europe. © 2014 Crown copyright; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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