Laboratoire Of Lintegration Du Materiau Au Systeme
Laboratoire Of Lintegration Du Materiau Au Systeme
Joucla S.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Joucla S.,Institut Universitaire de France |
Ambroise M.,University of Bordeaux 1 |
Ambroise M.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
And 18 more authors.
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2016
Neural prostheses based on electrical microstimulation offer promising perspectives to restore functions following lesions of the central nervous system (CNS). They require the identification of appropriate stimulation sites and the coordination of their activation to achieve the restoration of functional activity. On the long term, a challenging perspective is to control microstimulation by artificial neural networks hybridized to the living tissue. Regarding the use of this strategy to restore locomotor activity in the spinal cord, to date, there has been no proof of principle of such hybrid approach driving intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). Here, we address a first step toward this goal in the neonatal rat spinal cord isolated ex vivo, which can display locomotor-like activity while offering an easy access to intraspinal circuitry. Microelectrode arrays were inserted in the lumbar region to determine appropriate stimulation sites to elicit elementary bursting patterns on bilateral L2/L5 ventral roots. Two intraspinal sites were identified at L1 level, one on each side of the spinal cord laterally from the midline and approximately at a median position dorso-ventrally. An artificial CPG implemented on digital integrated circuit (FPGA) was built to generate alternating activity and was hybridized to the living spinal cord to drive electrical microstimulation on these two identified sites. Using this strategy, sustained left-right and flexor-extensor alternating activity on bilateral L2/L5 ventral roots could be generated in either whole or thoracically transected spinal cords. These results are a first step toward hybrid artificial/biological solutions based on electrical microstimulation for the restoration of lost function in the injured CNS. © 2016 Joucla, Ambroise, Levi, Lafon, Chauvet, Saïghi, Bornat, Lewis, Renaud and Yvert.
Barbey C.,Telespazio France |
Helbert J.,Telespazio France |
Jaen A.,Telespazio France |
Pagot E.,Telespazio France |
And 5 more authors.
Revue Francaise de Photogrammetrie et de Teledetection | Year: 2014
A comparative study between Pléiades and UAV images has been conducted for precision viticulture applications in the Aquitaine region over Buzet vineyard and two Bordeaux domains. This study has shown a good agreement between the results obtained from the different sensors, both for the characterisation of the vine plots and for the vineyard vigour assessment. Especially local vineyard heterogeneities and variabilities can be demonstrated on Pléiades imagery, which is consequently of interest for the characterisation of vineyards at regional scale. However detection of small structures is limited by Pléiades spatial resolution especially where the vine row distance is narrow (less than 2 metres). Use of alternate technologies with better spatial resolution such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is relevant for more accurate plot parameter characterisations.
Durier A.,Institute Of Recherche Technologique Saint Exupery |
Durier A.,Continental AG |
Bensoussan A.,Institute Of Recherche Technologique Saint Exupery |
Bensoussan A.,Thales Alenia |
And 4 more authors.
Microelectronics Reliability | Year: 2015
The industries of transportation as the space industry are faced with a strong global economic competition which sets economic constraints on the cost of the functions. The use of COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) components in embedded systems is more and more necessary to shorten the development cycles and reduce manufacturing costs. The application of electronic components comes overwhelmingly from public sectors whose requirement is to provide, in short development cycles, technological innovations including risk and cost mitigation. These development cycles must incorporate the specific constraints of embedded systems in terms of reliability, dependability, and availability, held in harsh environment and life.Due to the low volume of components supplying the market of embedded systems, component manufacturers are unlikely to provide information necessary to supporting folders for certification or qualification. It is therefore necessary for the Space, Aeronautics and Automotive industries to characterize the performance and robustness of these COTS components in the operational and environmental conditions of their applications.This paper presents the objectives and main challenges of a sponsored project dedicated to characterize and model COTS reliability. © 2015.
Marc Salotti J.,Laboratoire Of Lintegration Du Materiau Au Systeme
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2011
We propose a simplified but efficient scenario for a manned Mars mission. The idea is to select a crew of only 2 astronauts and to bring in situ resource utilization systems in the same vehicle. For security reasons, we suggest duplicating the mission as it was proposed by Von Braun. At very moment of the journey, the two vehicles would stay close so that each crew could provide help to the other. We show that this scenario is much simpler than the last design reference architecture proposed by NASA. The initial mass in low Earth orbit is minimized and the risks are also reduced. The total cost could be in the order of 40 billion dollars. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Bompart M.,Compiègne University of Technology |
Haupt K.,Compiègne University of Technology |
Ayela C.,Laboratoire Of Lintegration Du Materiau Au Systeme
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2012
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are tailor-made receptors that possess the most important feature of biological antibodies and receptors - specific molecular recognition. They can thus be used in applications where selective binding events are of importance, such as chemical sensors, biosensors and biochips. For the development of microsensors, sensor arrays and microchips based on molecularly imprinted polymers, micro and nanofabrication methods are of great importance since they allow the patterning and structuring of MIPs on transducer surfaces. It has been shown that because of their stability, MIPs can be easily integrated in a number of standard microfabrication processes. Thereby, the possibility of photopolymerizing MIPs is a particular advantage. In addition to specific molecular recognition properties, nanostructured MIPs and MIP nanocomposites allow for additional interesting properties in such sensing materials, for example, amplification of electromagnetic waves by metal nanoparticles, magnetic susceptibility, structural colors in photonic crystals, or others. These materials will therefore find applications in particular for chemical and biochemical detection, monitoring and screening. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.