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Wu A.-M.,University of Southampton | Hornblad E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Voxeur A.,Laboratoire Of Glycobiologie Et Matrice Extracellulaire Vegetale | Gerber L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology

The hemicellulose glucuronoxylan (GX) is a major component of plant secondary cell walls. However, our understanding of GX synthesis remains limited. Here, we identify and analyze two new genes from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), IRREGULAR XYLEM9-LIKE (IRX9-L) and IRX14-LIKE (IRX14-L) that encode glycosyltransferase family 43 members proposed to function during xylan backbone elongation. We place IRX9-L and IRX14-L in a genetic framework with six previously described glycosyltransferase genes (IRX9, IRX10, IRX10-L, IRX14, FRAGILE FIBER8 [FRA8], and FRA8 HOMOLOG [F8H]) and investigate their function in GX synthesis. Double-mutant analysis identifies IRX9-L and IRX14-L as functional homologs of IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. Characterization of irx9 irx10 irx14 fra8 and irx9-L irx10-L irx14-L f8h quadruple mutants allows definition of a set of genes comprising IRX9, IRX10, IRX14, and FRA8 that perform the main role in GX synthesis during vegetative development. The IRX9-L, IRX10-L, IRX14-L, and F8H genes are able to partially substitute for their respective homologs and normally perform a minor function. The irx14 irx14-L double mutant virtually lacks xylan, whereas irx9 irx9-L and fra8 f8h double mutants form lowered amounts of GX displaying a greatly reduced degree of backbone polymerization. Our findings reveal two distinct sets of four genes each differentially contributing to GX biosynthesis. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

Gotte M.,Laboratoire Of Glycobiologie Et Matrice Extracellulaire Vegetale | Ghosh R.,Laboratoire Of Glycobiologie Et Matrice Extracellulaire Vegetale | Bernard S.,Laboratoire Of Glycobiologie Et Matrice Extracellulaire Vegetale | Bernard S.,University of Rouen | And 5 more authors.
Plant and Cell Physiology

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells. © 2014 The Author. Source

Lehner A.,Laboratoire Of Glycobiologie Et Matrice Extracellulaire Vegetale | Dardelle F.,Laboratoire Of Glycobiologie Et Matrice Extracellulaire Vegetale | Soret-Morvan O.,Laboratoire Of Glycobiologie Et Matrice Extracellulaire Vegetale | Lerouge P.,Laboratoire Of Glycobiologie Et Matrice Extracellulaire Vegetale | And 2 more authors.
Plant Signaling and Behavior

Plant sexual reproduction involves the growth of tip-polarized pollen tubes through the female tissues in order to deliver the sperm nuclei to the egg cells. Despite the importance of this crucial step, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in this spatial and temporal control of the tube growth. In order to study this process and to characterize the structural composition of the extracellular matrix of the male gametophyte, immunocytochemical and biochemical analyses of Arabidopsis pollen tube wall have been carried out. Results showed a well defined localization of cell wall epitopes with highly esterified homogalacturonan and arabinogalactan-protein mainly in the tip region, weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan back from the tip and xyloglucan and (1→5)-α-L-arabinan all along the tube. Here, we present complementary data regarding (1) the ultrastructure of the pollen tube cell wall and (2) the immunolocalization of homogalacturonan and arabinan epitopes in 16 h-old pollen tubes and in the stigma and the transmitting tract of the female organ. Discussion regarding the pattern of the distribution of the cell wall epitopes and the possible mechanisms of cell adhesion between the pollen tubes and the female tissues is provided. © 2010 Landes Bioscience. Source

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