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James-Smith J.,University of Adelaide | James-Smith J.,CNRS Neel Institute | Cauzid J.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Cauzid J.,University of Lorraine | And 10 more authors.
American Mineralogist

Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) was used to characterize As speciation within natural fluid inclusions from three deposits with different hydrogeochemical and geological settings. The studied samples represent different compositions of Au-bearing fluids: typical orogenic Au deposit (low-salinity, ∼6 mol% CO2 ± CH4; Brusson, Western Italian Alps); brines from a Proterozoic (Fe)-Cu-Au deposit (Starra, Queensland, Australia); and an As-rich magmatic fluid with a bulk composition similar to that typical of orogenic gold (Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique). Arsenic K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) were obtained from fluid inclusions at temperatures ranging from 25 to 200 °C, and compared with spectra of aqueous As(III) and As(V) solutions and minerals. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data show that initially the fluid inclusions from all three regions contain some As in reduced form [As(III) at Brusson and Muiane; As-sulfide or possibly As(0) at Starra]. However, this reduced As is readily oxidized under the beam to As(V). Therefore, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra for the As(III) aqueous complex could be collected only on the sample from the Muiane pegmatite containing large fluid inclusions with high As concentrations ( ≫ 1000 ppm). Analysis of these EXAFS data shows that As(OH)3(aq) (coordination number of 3.0 ± 0.2 atoms, bond length of 1.76 ± 0.01 Å) is the dominant arsenic aqueous species in the Muiane fluid inclusions at 100 °C, in accordance with predictions based on studies conducted using autoclaves. The As(V) complex resulting from photooxidation in the Muiane inclusions was characterized at 200 °C; the As-O bond distance (1.711 ± 0.025 Å) corresponds to that found in the arsenate group in minerals, and to that measured for the (HAsO 4)2- complex at room temperature (1.700 ± 0.023 Å). The extent of the XAS information that could be obtained for As in this study was limited by the rapid photooxidation that occurred in all inclusions, despite the relatively low photon flux density used (∼4.4 × 106 photons/s/μm2). Photosensitivity was not observed in autoclave experiments and is the result of a complex interaction between redox-sensitive complexes in solution and the products of water radiolysis generated by the beam. Even under such challenging experimental conditions, the information gathered provides some precious information about As chemistry in ore-forming fluids. Source

Bourova E.,Hokkaido University | Bourova E.,Laboratoire Of Geophysique Interne Et Tectonophysique | Yoshizawa K.,Hokkaido University | Yoshizawa K.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Yomogida K.,Hokkaido University
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors

The upper mantle structure of marginal seas (the Seas of Japan and Okhotsk) and subduction zones in northeastern Eurasia is investigated, using the three-stage multimode surface wave tomography incorporating finite-frequency effects. Broadband waveform data from 305 events with magnitude greater than 5.5 from 1990 to 2005 recorded at 25 stations of the IRIS network in northeastern Eurasia and Japan and at 8 stations of the broadband seismic network in Far-Eastern Russia from 2005 to 2008 are employed in our analysis. The dispersion curves of the fundamental mode and first two higher modes of Rayleigh waves are simultaneously inverted for the shear-wave velocity structure of the region. The off-great circle propagation due to strong heterogeneities in the region is also taken into account in the construction of intermediary phase velocity models for each mode as a function of frequency. The obtained 3D S-wave velocity model is well resolved down to 200 km depth. Checkerboard tests show the average horizontal resolution of 5° in the study region. The subducting Pacific plate is clearly imaged as a high velocity anomaly up to 6%. The mantle wedge above the Pacific plate is associated with low velocity anomalies. The absolute minimum S-wave velocity in the mantle wedge is 4 km/s in the Sea of Okhotsk in the depth range from 80 to 160 km, probably indicating the presence of partial melt. The anomalous spot with conspicuous low velocity in the southern end of the Sea of Okhotsk may indicate the existence of hot upwelling flow in the mantle. A high velocity anomaly subparallel to the present subduction zone is found in the northwestern Sea of Okhotsk in the depth range from 100 to 200 km. The position of this anomaly correlates well with the high velocity anomaly found in the P-wave tomography of Gorbatov et al. (2000), which may be interpreted as a relict of the Okhotsk plate subducted in the past. We also attempted a mapping of azimuthal anisotropy in this region. The fast phase velocity directions near the Pacific plate are observed subparallel to the Kuril and Japan Trenches at all the periods, indicating a strong effect of the subducting Pacific plate on the mantle flow, while the anisotropy appears to be weak in tectonically inactive marginal seas. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Renalier F.,Laboratoire Of Geophysique Interne Et Tectonophysique | Jongmans D.,Laboratoire Of Geophysique Interne Et Tectonophysique | Savvaidis A.,Institute of Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering | Wathelet M.,Laboratoire Of Geophysique Interne Et Tectonophysique | And 2 more authors.

Inversion of the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh wave dispersion curve does not provide a unique solution and the choice of the parameterization (number of layers, range of velocity, and thickness values for the layers) is of prime importance for obtaining reliable results. We analyzed shear-wave velocity profiles derived from borehole tests at 10 sites where soil layers overlay bedrock in various geologic contexts. One to three seismic layers with linear velocity laws could model all of them. Three synthetic models defined from this preliminary study were used to understand the influence of parameterization on the dispersion curve inversion. This analysis resulted in the definition of a two-step inversion procedure for sites exhibiting a strong impedance con-trast. In the first step, the dispersion curve is inverted with an increasing number of layers over half space. The evolution of the minimum misfit and bedrock depth with number of layers allows the estimation of the true bedrock depth range. In the second step, this information is introduced in inversions with linear velocity laws. Synthetic tests showed that applying this procedure requires the dispersion curve over a frequency range from F0 to 10F0, where F0 is the site resonance frequency. The strategy was tested on two real cases for which Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were measured over this frequency range using passive and active seismic methods. The strategy was successful at the first site, while the bedrock depth was overestimated by 15% at the second site, probably resulting from the existence of a higher mode affecting the dispersion curve at low frequency. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Source

Chiaraluce L.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Chiarabba C.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | De Gori P.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Di Stefano R.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | And 6 more authors.
Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata

On April 6 (01:32 UTC) 2009 a MW 6.1 normal faulting earthquake struck the axial area of the Abruzzo region in central Italy. The earthquake heavily damaged the city of L'Aquila and its surroundings, causing 308 casualties, 70,000 evacuees and incalculable losses to the cultural heritage. We present the geometry of the fault system composed of two main normal fault planes, reconstructed by means of seismicity distribution: almost 3000 events with ML≥1.9 occurred in the area during 2009. The events have been located with a 1D velocity model we computed for the area by using data of the seismic sequence. The mainshock, located at around a 9.3 km depth beneath the town of L'Aquila, activated a 50° (+/- 3) SW-dipping and ~135° NW-trending normal fault with a length of about 16 km. The aftershocks activated the whole 10 km of the upper crust up to the surface. The geometry of the fault is coherent with the mapped San Demetrio-Paganica and Mt. Stabiata normal faults. The whole normal fault system that reached about 40 km of length by the end of December in the NW-trending direction, was activated within the first few days of the sequence when most of the energetic events occurred. The main shock fault plane was activated by a foreshock sequence that culminated with a MW 4.0 on March 30 (13:38 UTC), showing extensional kinematics with a minor left lateral component. The second major structure, located to the north close to Campotosto village, is controlled by an MW 5.0 event, which occurred on the same day of the main shock (April 6 at 23:15 UTC), and by an MW 5.2 event (April 9 at 00:53 UTC). The fault plane shows a shallower dip angle with respect to the main fault plane, of about 35° with a tendency to flattening towards the deepest portion. Due to the lack of seismicity above a 5 km depth, the connection between this structure and the mapped Monti della Laga fault is not straightforward. This northern segment is recognisable for about 12-14 km of length, always NW-trending and forming a right lateral step with the main fault plane. The result is a en-echelon system overlapping for about 6 km. The seismicity pattern also highlights the activation of numerous minor normal fault segments within the whole fault system. The deepest is located at around a 13-15 km depth, south of the L'Aquila mainshock, and it seems to be antithetic to the main fault plane. © 2011 - OGS. Source

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