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Frank-Lawale A.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Allen Jr. S.K.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Degremont L.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Degremont L.,Laboratoire Of Genetique Et Pathologie Des Mollusques Marins
Journal of Shellfish Research | Year: 2014

A selective breeding program for Crassostrea virginica was established in 1997 as part of an initiative in Virginia to address declining oyster harvests caused by the two oyster pathogens Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus (Dermo). Housed in the Aquaculture Genetics and Breeding Technology Center (ABC), the objective of the program was to develop and disseminate disease-resistant lines that would enable an oyster culture industry. Today, culture of disease-resistant cultivars accounts for more than 90% of oyster production in the state, where 28.1 million half-shell oysters and 2 billion eyed larvae were sold in 2012. Results of our line development program as of 2006 are reported. Eight ABC lines from 3 genetic groups-East Coast (EC), Louisiana (LA), and hybrids between the 2 (HY)-and 1 wild control line, were produced and tested. These 9 groups were deployed in 4 replicates across 4 Virginia sites characterized by low (Kinsale (KIN)), medium (York River (YRK) and Lynnhaven (LYN)), and high (Wachapreague (WAC)) salinity regimes. Groups were sampled routinely for survival, growth, and disease diagnosis between November 2004 and December 2006. At KIN, where salinity was low and below the threshold for MSX and Dermo, survival was 41%-46% greater than survival at the other 3 sites by the end of the trial. Where the diseases were present (LYN, YRK, and WAC), ABC lines in general had greater survival than the control, but this varied by genetic group. The EC groups had 52%-82% greater survival, the HY groups had as much as 40% greater survival, and the LA groups performed worse than the control. Poor performance of the LA groups was a result of their susceptibility to MSX, and the majority of them died before the end of the study. The genetic effects varied with site, and the rank of the lines was inconsistent, such that the best line in one site was, in some cases, one of the worst in another. Genotype-by-environment interaction is clearly driven by disease and salinity. Growth was also influenced by site, genetic group, and an interaction between them. Compared with the wild control, ABC lines were 31%, 20%, 42%, and 24% heavier at the end of the trial in the KIN, YRK, LYN, and WAC sites, respectively. However, unlike survival, the best performers were those from the LA and HY groups. Again, line rankings changed across sites. For this reason, a salinity-specific breeding strategy to develop lines that perform optimally within a salinity range has been adopted.

Pernet F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Lupo C.,Laboratoire Of Genetique Et Pathologie Des Mollusques Marins | Bacher C.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Whittington R.J.,University of Sydney
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Emerging diseases pose a recurrent threat to bivalve aquaculture. Recently, massive mortality events in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas associated with the detection of a microvariant of the ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1mVar) have been reported in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Although the spread of disease is often viewed as a governance failure, we suggest that the development of protective measures for bivalve farming is presently held back by the lack of key scientific knowledge. In this paper, we explore the case for an integrated approach to study the management of bivalve disease, using OsHV-1 as a case study. Reconsidering the key issues by incorporating multidisciplinary science could provide a holistic understanding of OsHV-1 and increase the benefit of research to policymakers. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

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