Fougères, France
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Soumet C.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | Fourreau E.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | Legrandois P.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | Maris P.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2012

Bacterial adaptation to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) is mainly documented for benzalkonium chloride (BC) and few data are available for other QACs. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of repeated exposure to different quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the susceptibility and/or resistance of bacteria to other QACs and antibiotics. Escherichia coli strains (n= 10) were adapted by daily exposure to increasingly sub-inhibitory concentrations of a QAC for 7 days. Three QACs were studied. Following adaptation, we found similar levels of reduction in susceptibility to QACs with a mean 3-fold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) compared to initial MIC values, whatever the QAC used during adaptation. No significant differences in antibiotic susceptibility were observed between the tested QACs. Antibiotic susceptibility was reduced from 3.5- to 7.5-fold for phenicol compounds, β lactams, and quinolones. Increased MIC was associated with a shift in phenotype from susceptible to resistant for phenicol compounds (florfenicol and chloramphenicol) in 90% of E. coli strains. Regardless of the QAC used for adaptation, exposure to gradually increasing concentrations of this type of disinfectant results in reduced susceptibility to QACs and antibiotics as well as cross-resistance to phenicol compounds in E. coli strains. Extensive use of QACs at sub-inhibitory concentrations may lead to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and may represent a public health risk. © 2012.


Vasseur M.V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vasseur M.V.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Vasseur M.V.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | Laurentie M.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | And 9 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

The combination of efficacious treatment against bacterial infections and mitigation of antibiotic resistance amplification in gut microbiota is a major challenge for antimicrobial therapy in food-producing animals. In rats, we evaluated the impact of cefquinome, a fourth-generation cephalosporin, on both Klebsiella pneumoniae lung infection and intestinal flora harboring CTX-M-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Germfree rats received a fecal flora specimen from specific-pathogen-free pigs, to which a CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli strain had been added. K. pneumoniae cells were inoculated in the lungs of these gnotobiotic rats by using either a low (105 CFU) or a high (109 CFU) inoculum. Without treatment, all animals infected with the low or high K. pneumoniae inoculum developed pneumonia and died before 120 h postchallenge. In the treated groups, the low-inoculum rats received a 4-day treatment of 5 mg/kg of body weight cefquinome beginning at 24 h postchallenge (prepatent phase of the disease), and the high-inoculum rats received a 4-day treatment of 50 mg/kg cefquinome beginning when the animals expressed clinical signs of infection (patent phase of the disease). The dose of 50 mg/kg targeting the high K. pneumoniae inoculum cured all the treated rats and resulted in a massive amplification of CTX-M-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A dose of 5 mg/kg targeting the low K. pneumoniae inoculum cured all the rats and averted an outbreak of clinical disease, all without any amplification of CTX-M-producing Enterobacteriaceae. These findings might have implications for the development of new antimicrobial treatment strategies that ensure a cure for bacterial infections while avoiding the amplification of resistance genes of human concern in the gut microbiota of food-producing animals. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


In the European Union, antimicrobials are administered to animals as veterinary drugs. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic and indicator bacteria were implemented at the European level during the last decade. This methodology can be applied for emerging bacteria observed at a national level to provide data for a risk characterization towards a risk analysis. Tools for monitoring antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine are developed and need to be harmonized at the European level. Development of antimicrobial resistance for veterinary pathogens must be managed to maintain their efficacy in animal health. Engagement of veterinarians and professionals of animal production is on going to preserve efficacy of antimicrobials in human and animal medicine.


Gaudin V.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | Hedou C.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | Soumet C.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | Verdon E.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2014

The main chemicals used against varoa are acaricides, and the antibiotics used for the control of bee bacterial diseases are mainly tetracyclines, streptomycins, sulfonamides and chloramphenicol. No maximum residue limits (MRLs) have been set for any antibiotics in honey. Therefore, in the European Union, minimum recommended concentrations (RC) for the analytical performance of methods to control a certain set of these non-authorised chemicals in honey were published by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) in 2007. Concerning the strategy for the control for antibiotic residues in honey, there is still a great need for a cheap and single multi-residue method. Biochip array technology is an innovative assay technology for the multi-analyte screening of biological samples in a rapid and easy-to-use format. A multi-array system, called Evidence Investigator™ (Randox, Crumlin, Co., Antrim, UK), was evaluated in our laboratory. It is a semi-automated biochip system designed for research, clinical applications and veterinary use. A competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay is employed for the detection of antimicrobials. The MicroArray II kit (AM II) dedicated to the screening of six different families of antibiotic residues was validated according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods for residues of veterinary medicines. The specificity was proven to be very satisfactory, and applicability to different kinds of honey was demonstrated. The detection capabilities (CCβ) of six antibiotic residues were determined and were below the RCs when exist. The AM II kit could detect at least six quinolones, four tetracyclines and three epimers, three aminoglycosides, three macrolides, thiamphenicol, florfenicol and ceftiofur along with one of its stabilised metabolites, the desfuroylceftiofurcysteine disulfide (DCCD). © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Ferran A.A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ferran A.A.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Bibbal D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bibbal D.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2013

Classical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of antimicrobial agents performed by combining plasma concentrations and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are often predictive of the activity of a drug against targeted pathogens located at infectious sites closely connected to circulating blood. However, these studies do not predict the impact of parenteral antimicrobial treatment on intestinal bacteria, which could be responsible for transmission of resistance between species or in the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the differential antibacterial activity of a fluoroquinolone against lung and gut bacteria. Plasma and intestinal concentrations of marbofloxacin were assessed in pigs following intramuscular administration, and the in vitro relationship between marbofloxacin concentrations and mean bacterial inoculum growth in standard broth and in sterilised intestinal contents was modelled. It was shown that the increased intestinal exposure to marbofloxacin compared with plasma in pigs was compensated by reduced marbofloxacin activity against Escherichia coli in the contents of the digestive tract compared with in broth. These results showed that marbofloxacin doses used to target pathogens at the lung level would similarly affect the bacterial population of the same size and with a similar MIC located in the small intestine. However, it was shown that the bactericidal activity of marbofloxacin was increased 4- to 7-fold with low (105 CFU/mL) compared with high (108 CFU/mL) inoculum sizes. This result suggests that much lower marbofloxacin doses than those classically used would potentially eradicate low pulmonary pathogenic inocula while having a minimal impact on the large gut microbiota. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy.


Le Hegarat L.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | Huet S.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres | Fessard V.,Laboratoire Of Fougeres
Mutagenesis | Year: 2012

Here, we assessed a co-culture system of intestinal Caco-2 cells and lymphoblastoid TK6 cells for modelling the role of intestinal first-pass effects, i.e. absorption and metabolism, in the genotoxicity of oral drugs and food contaminants. Caco-2 cells were seeded onto semipermeable culture inserts for 21 days until differentiation, and then TK6 cells were added to the basal compartment. After apical loading with mutagenic compounds [methylmethanesulfonate (MMS), benzo[a]-pyrene (BaP) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)], comet and micronucleus assays were performed on both cell lines. MMS (10 μg/ml) showed positive results in the micronucleus assays in both cell lines, even though DNA damage was only detected in the Caco-2 cells with the comet assay. At concentrations of 0.5-50 M, BaP induced dose-dependent comet and micronucleus formation at 24h in Caco-2 cells, but no DNA damage was observed in TK6 cells. Although AFB1 failed to induce comet formation, it resulted in a high level of micronuclei in both cell lines. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with the CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole, inhibited the AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and micronucleus formation in TK6 cells, suggesting that intestinal metabolism is involved in the AFB1 genotoxic response in TK6 cells. Our results suggest that the Caco-2/TK6 co-culture model is suitable for modelling the role of intestinal biotransformation and transport processes in the genotoxic potential of oral drugs and food contaminants in target blood cells. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved.


van Duijkeren E.,University Utrecht | Catry B.,Scientific Institute of Public Health | Greko C.,National Veterinary Institute | Moreno M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important opportunistic pathogen of companion animals, especially dogs. Since 2006 there has been a significant emergence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) mainly due to clonal spread. This article reviews research on MRSP with a focus on occurrence, methods used for identification, risk factors for colonization and infection, zoonotic potential and control options. Potential areas for future research are also discussed. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Laboratoire Of Fougeres
Type: | Journal: Biosensors & bioelectronics | Year: 2016

Antibiotic residues may be found in food of animal origin, since veterinary drugs are used for preventive and curative purposes to treat animals. The control of veterinary drug residues in food is necessary to ensure consumer safety. Screening methods are the first step in the control of antibiotic residues in food of animal origin. Conventional screening methods are based on different technologies, microbiological methods, immunological methods or physico-chemical methods (e.g. thin-layer chromatography, HPLC, LC-MS/MS). Screening methods should be simple, quick, inexpensive and specific, with low detection limits and high sample throughput. Biosensors can meet some of these requirements. Therefore, the development of biosensors for the screening of antibiotic residues has been increasing since the 1980s. The present review provides extensive and up-to-date findings on biosensors for the screening of antibiotic residues in food products of animal origin. Biosensors are constituted of a bioreceptor and a transducer. In the detection of antibiotic residues, even though antibodies were the first bioreceptors to be used, new kinds of bioreceptors are being developed more and more (enzymes, aptamers, MIPs); their advantages and drawbacks are discussed in this review. The different categories of transducers (electrochemical, mass-based biosensors, optical and thermal) and their potential applications for the screening of antibiotic residues in food are presented. Moreover, the advantages and drawbacks of the different types of transducers are discussed. Lastly, outlook and the future development of biosensors for the control of antibiotic residues in food are highlighted.


PubMed | Laboratoire Of Fougeres
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2016

Colistin resistance was investigated in 1,696 isolates collected from 2007 to 2014 within the frame of the French livestock antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme. The mcr-1 gene was detected in all commensal Escherichia coli isolates with a minimum inhibitory concentration to colistin above the 2 mg/L cut-off value (n=23). In poultry, mcr-1 prevalence was 5.9% in turkeys and 1.8% in broilers in 2014. In pigs, investigated in 2013, this prevalence did not exceed 0.5%. These findings support that mcr-1 has spread in French livestock.


PubMed | Laboratoire Of Fougeres
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment | Year: 2014

The main chemicals used against varoa are acaricides, and the antibiotics used for the control of bee bacterial diseases are mainly tetracyclines, streptomycins, sulfonamides and chloramphenicol. No maximum residue limits (MRLs) have been set for any antibiotics in honey. Therefore, in the European Union, minimum recommended concentrations (RC) for the analytical performance of methods to control a certain set of these non-authorised chemicals in honey were published by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) in 2007. Concerning the strategy for the control for antibiotic residues in honey, there is still a great need for a cheap and single multi-residue method. Biochip array technology is an innovative assay technology for the multi-analyte screening of biological samples in a rapid and easy-to-use format. A multi-array system, called Evidence Investigator (Randox, Crumlin, Co., Antrim, UK), was evaluated in our laboratory. It is a semi-automated biochip system designed for research, clinical applications and veterinary use. A competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay is employed for the detection of antimicrobials. The MicroArray II kit (AM II) dedicated to the screening of six different families of antibiotic residues was validated according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods for residues of veterinary medicines. The specificity was proven to be very satisfactory, and applicability to different kinds of honey was demonstrated. The detection capabilities (CC) of six antibiotic residues were determined and were below the RCs when exist. The AM II kit could detect at least six quinolones, four tetracyclines and three epimers, three aminoglycosides, three macrolides, thiamphenicol, florfenicol and ceftiofur along with one of its stabilised metabolites, the desfuroylceftiofurcysteine disulfide (DCCD).

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