Cluzeau C.,University of Paris Descartes |
Hadj-Rabia S.,University of Paris Descartes |
Jambou M.,Service de Geeenetique Medicale |
Mansour S.,University of Paris Descartes |
And 19 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2011
Hypohidrotic and anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED/EDA) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by abnormal development of sweat glands, teeth, and hair. Three disease-causing genes have been hitherto identified, namely, (1) EDA1 accounting for X-linked forms, (2) EDAR, and (3) EDARADD, causing both autosomal dominant and recessive forms. Recently, WNT10A gene was identified as responsible for various autosomal recessive forms of ectodermal dysplasias, including onycho-odonto-dermal dysplasia (OODD) and Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome. We systematically studied EDA1, EDAR, EDARADD, and WNT10A genes in a large cohort of 65 unrelated patients, of which 61 presented with HED/EDA. A total of 50 mutations (including 32 novel mutations) accounted for 60/65 cases in our series. These four genes accounted for 92% (56/61 patients) of HED/EDA cases: (1) the EDA1 gene was the most common disease-causing gene (58% of cases), (2)WNT10A and EDAR were each responsible for 16% of cases. Moreover, a novel disease locus for dominant HED/EDA mapped to chromosome 14q12-q13.1. Although no clinical differences between patients carrying EDA1, EDAR, or EDARADD mutations could be identified, patients harboring WNT10A mutations displayed distinctive clinical features (marked dental phenotype, no facial dysmorphism), helping to decide which gene should be first investigated in HED/EDA. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PubMed | Laboratoire Of Diagnostic Genetique, Laboratoire Of Neurophysiologie Clinique, Service de Neurologie Pediatrique et Maladies Metaboliques, CHU Hautepierre and 2 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2015
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is characterized by postnatal growth failure and progressive multi-organ dysfunctions. CSA and CSB gene mutations account for the majority of cases and three degrees of severity are delineated. A peripheral neuropathy is known to be associated with CS but the type, severity and correlation of the nerve involvement with CS subtypes remain unknown in genetically identified patients.Clinical and nerve conduction studies (NCS) in 25 CS patients with CSA (n=13) CSB (n=12) mutations.NCS show a widespread decrease in motor and sensory conduction velocities (CV) in all severe and classical form of CS. In one patient, CV were normal at age 8months but severe slowing was detected at 2years. Conduction block and/or temporal dispersion were observed in 68% of patients.CS is associated with a progressive sensory and motor neuropathy. Signs of segmental demyelination, including conduction blocks, may not be obvious before the age of 2years. CV slowing is correlated with the CS clinical severity.NCS should be performed in patients with suspected CS as an additional tool to guide the diagnosis before molecular studies. Further studies focused on NCS course are required in order to assess its relevance as a biomarker in research therapy projects.
El Inati E.,University of Strasbourg |
Muller J.,University of Strasbourg |
Muller J.,Laboratoire Of Diagnostic Genetique |
Viville S.,University of Strasbourg
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2012
Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after 1. year of unprotected intercourse, is a healthcare problem that has a worldwide impact. Male factors are involved in at least half of these cases of infertility. Despite 33. years of assisted reproductive activities, a considerable number of cases (25-30%) remain idiopathic. This situation can be explained by a poor understanding of the basic mechanisms driving male and female gametogenesis. Compared to multi-organ pathologies, only a few non-syndromic genetic causes of human infertility have been described so far, despite the fact that it is estimated that some infertility cases could be explained by genetic causes and that over 200 infertile or subfertile genetic mouse models have been described. So far, very little has been discovered in the field of human male reproductive genetics. Consequently, genetic tests proposed to infertile couples are limited, although worldwide efforts devoted to the field of human genetics of infertility are expected to provide new genetic tests in the near future. We present the requirements for performing informative genetics studies in the field of infertility, the techniques used and the results obtained so far. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular Genetics of Human Reproductive Failure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Koscinski I.,University of Strasbourg |
Elinati E.,University of Strasbourg |
Fossard C.,University of Strasbourg |
Redin C.,University of Strasbourg |
And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011
Globozoospermia, characterized by round-headed spermatozoa, is a rare (< 0.1% in male infertile patients) and severe teratozoospermia consisting primarily of spermatozoa lacking an acrosome. Studying a Jordanian consanguineous family in which five brothers were diagnosed with complete globozoospermia, we showed that the four out of five analyzed infertile brothers carried a homozygous deletion of 200 kb on chromosome 12 encompassing only DPY19L2. Very similar deletions were found in three additional unrelated patients, suggesting that DPY19L2 deletion is a major cause of globozoospermia, given that 19% (4 of 21) of the analyzed patients had such deletion. The deletion is most probably due to a nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR), because the gene is surrounded by two low copy repeats (LCRs). We found DPY19L2 deletion in patients from three different origins and two different breakpoints, strongly suggesting that the deletion results from recurrent events linked to the specific architectural feature of this locus rather than from a founder effect, without fully excluding a recent founder effect. DPY19L2 is associated with a complete form of globozoospermia, as is the case for the first two genes found to be associated with globozoospermia, SPATA16 or PICK1. However, in contrast to SPATA16, for which no pregnancy was reported, pregnancies were achieved, via intracytoplasmic sperm injection, for two patients with DPY19L2 deletion, who then fathered three children. © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics.
Popova T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Hebert L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Jacquemin V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Gad S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
And 42 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013
The genetic cause of some familial nonsyndromic renal cell carcinomas (RCC) defined by at least two affected first-degree relatives is unknown. By combining whole-exome sequencing and tumor profiling in a family prone to cases of RCC, we identified a germline BAP1 mutation c.277A>G (p.Thr93Ala) as the probable genetic basis of RCC predisposition. This mutation segregated with all four RCC-affected relatives. Furthermore, BAP1 was found to be inactivated in RCC-affected individuals from this family. No BAP1 mutations were identified in 32 familial cases presenting with only RCC. We then screened for germline BAP1 deleterious mutations in familial aggregations of cancers within the spectrum of the recently described BAP1-associated tumor predisposition syndrome, including uveal melanoma, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and cutaneous melanoma. Among the 11 families that included individuals identified as carrying germline deleterious BAP1 mutations, 6 families presented with 9 RCC-affected individuals, demonstrating a significantly increased risk for RCC. This strongly argues that RCC belongs to the BAP1 syndrome and that BAP1 is a RCC-predisposition gene. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics.
Creevey C.J.,Teagasc |
Creevey C.J.,European Molecular Biology Laboratory |
Muller J.,European Molecular Biology Laboratory |
Muller J.,Laboratoire Of Diagnostic Genetique |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2011
The identification of single copy (1-to-1) orthologs in any group of organisms is important for functional classification and phylogenetic studies. The Metazoa are no exception, but only recently has there been a wide-enough distribution of taxa with sufficiently high quality sequenced genomes to gain confidence in the wide-spread single copy status of a gene. Here, we present a phylogenetic approach for identifying overlooked single copy orthologs from multigene families and apply it to the Metazoa. Using 18 sequenced metazoan genomes of high quality we identified a robust set of 1,126 orthologous groups that have been retained in single copy since the last common ancestor of Metazoa. We found that the use of the phylogenetic procedure increased the number of single copy orthologs found by over a third more than standard taxon-count approaches. The orthologs represented a wide range of functional categories, expression profiles and levels of divergence. To demonstrate the value of our set of single copy orthologs, we used them to assess the completeness of 24 currently published metazoan genomes and 62 EST datasets. We found that the annotated genes in published genomes vary in coverage from 79% (Ciona intestinalis) to 99.8% (human) with an average of 92%, suggesting a value for the underlying error rate in genome annotation, and a strategy for identifying single copy orthologs in larger datasets. In contrast, the vast majority of EST datasets with no corresponding genome sequence available are largely under-sampled and probably do not accurately represent the actual genomic complement of the organisms from which they are derived. © 2011 Creevey et al.
Cowling B.S.,Institute Of Genetique Et Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Igbmc |
Cowling B.S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Cowling B.S.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Cowling B.S.,University of Strasbourg |
And 17 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2012
Proteins involved in membrane remodeling play an essential role in a plethora of cell functions including endocytosis and intracellular transport. Defects in several of them lead to human diseases. Myotubularins, amphiphysins, and dynamins are all proteins implicated in membrane trafficking and/or remodeling. Mutations in myotubularin, amphiphysin 2 (BIN1), and dynamin 2 lead to different forms of centronuclear myopathy, while mutations in myotubularin-related proteins cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. In addition to centronuclear myopathy, dynamin 2 is also mutated in a dominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. While several proteins from these different families are implicated in similar diseases, mutations in close homologues or in the same protein in the case of dynamin 2 lead to diseases affecting different tissues. This suggests (1) a common molecular pathway underlying these different neuromuscular diseases, and (2) tissue-specific regulation of these proteins. This review discusses the pathophysiology of the related neuromuscular diseases on the basis of animal models developed for proteins of the myotubularin, amphiphysin, and dynamin families. A better understanding of the common mechanisms between these neuromuscular disorders will lead to more specific health care and therapeutic approaches. © 2012 Cowling et al.
PubMed | Laboratoire Of Diagnostic Genetique, Groupe Hospitalier La Pitie Salpetriere, University of Würzburg, French Institute of Health and Medical Research and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brain : a journal of neurology | Year: 2014
Centronuclear myopathies are congenital muscle disorders characterized by type I myofibre predominance and an increased number of muscle fibres with nuclear centralization. The severe neonatal X-linked form is due to mutations in MTM1, autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy with neonatal or childhood onset results from mutations in BIN1 (amphiphysin 2), and dominant cases were previously associated to mutations in DNM2 (dynamin 2). Our aim was to determine the genetic basis and physiopathology of patients with mild dominant centronuclear myopathy without mutations in DNM2. We hence established and characterized a homogeneous cohort of nine patients from five families with a progressive adult-onset centronuclear myopathy without facial weakness, including three sporadic cases and two families with dominant disease inheritance. All patients had similar histological and ultrastructural features involving type I fibre predominance and hypotrophy, as well as prominent nuclear centralization and clustering. We identified heterozygous BIN1 mutations in all patients and the molecular diagnosis was complemented by functional analyses. Two mutations in the N-terminal amphipathic helix strongly decreased the membrane-deforming properties of amphiphysin 2 and three stop-loss mutations resulted in a stable protein containing 52 supernumerary amino acids. Immunolabelling experiments revealed abnormal central accumulation of dynamin 2, caveolin-3, and the autophagic marker p62, and general membrane alterations of the triad, the sarcolemma, and the basal lamina as potential pathological mechanisms. In conclusion, we identified BIN1 as the second gene for dominant centronuclear myopathy. Our data provide the evidence that specific BIN1 mutations can cause either recessive or dominant centronuclear myopathy and that both disorders involve different pathomechanisms.
Rahim S.M.,University of Tikrit |
Rahim S.M.,National University of Malaysia |
Mazlan A.G.,National University of Malaysia |
Simon K.D.,National University of Malaysia |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2014
Pseudobranch function has long interested scientists, but its role has yet to be elucidated. Several studies have suggested that pseudobranchs serve respiratory, osmoregulatory, and sensory functions. This work investigated the immunolocalization of pseudobranch carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the teleost fish species rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to clarify its physiological function. CA was purified from rainbow trout gills O. mykiss and specific antibodies were raised. Immunoblotting between tissue homogenates of pseudobranch and gill CA antibodies showed specific immunostaining with only one band corresponding to CA in the pseudobranch homogenate. Results of immunohistochemical technique revealed that CA was distributed within pseudobranch cells and more precisely in the apical parts (anti-vascular) of cells. The basal (vascular) parts of cells, tubular system, blood capillaries, and pillar cells were not immunostained. Immunocytochemistry confirmed these results and showed that some CA enzyme was cytoplasmic and the remainder was linked to membranous structures. The results also showed that the lacunar tissue layers did not display immunoperoxidase activity. Our results indicated that pseudobranch CA may have a function related to the extracellular medium wherein CA intervenes with the mechanism of stimulation of afferent nerve fibers. © 2014 Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag.
PubMed | Laboratoire Of Diagnostic Genetique, Laboratoire Mecanismes genetiques des maladies neurodeveloppementales, Center de genetique et Center de Reference Anomalies du developpement et Syndromes malformatifs, Center Hospitalier Of Chalon Sur Saone and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of medical genetics. Part A | Year: 2016
Using targeted next generation sequencing, we have identified a splicing mutation (c.526-9_526-5del) in the SLC9A6 gene in a 9-year-old boy with mild intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly, and social interaction disabilities. This intronic microdeletion leads to the skipping of exon 3 and to an in-frame deletion of 26 amino acids in the TM4 domain. It segregates with cognitive impairment or learning difficulties in other members of the family. Mutations in SLC9A6 have been reported in X-linked Christianson syndrome associating severe to profound intellectual deficiency and an Angelman-like phenotype with microcephaly, absent speech, ataxia with progressive cerebellar atrophy, ophthalmoplegia, epilepsy, and neurological regression. The proband and his maternal uncle both have an attenuated phenotype with mild ID, attention deficit disorder, speech difficulties, and mild asymptomatic cerebellar atrophy. The proband also have microcephaly. The mutation cosegregated with learning disabilities and speech difficulties in the female carriers (mother and three sisters of the proband). Detailed neuropsychological, speech, and occupational therapy investigations in the female carriers revealed impaired oral and written language acquisition, with dissociation between verbal and performance IQ. An abnormal phenotype, ranging from learning disability with predominant speech difficulties to mild intellectual deficiency, has been described previously in a large proportion of female carriers. Besides broadening the clinical spectrum of SLC9A6 gene mutations, we present an example of a monogenic origin of mild learning disability. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.