Laboratoire Of Chrono Environnement

Arc-lès-Gray, France

Laboratoire Of Chrono Environnement

Arc-lès-Gray, France
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Rossi A.,Laboratoire Of Chrono Environnement | Rivals C.,TRACES
Archeologia e Calcolatori | Year: 2016

The understanding and representation of spatial evolution over the time are at the core of two PhDs. These studies largely rely on the comparison of diverse inventories of the same territory from tax documents and maps: terriers and compoix. These documents provide a lot of information on the structure of rural and/or urban areas. However, comparing this kind of information, which was compiled in successive periods, is sometimes difficult, especially because of frequent absence of maps related to the registers. Thanks to ANR ModelEpace's work, it is now possible to study these documents by exploiting their topological properties: information from textual and/or planimetric sources is modelled as a graph which permits a comparison in order to analyse the spatial dynamics of land over time. That is why this method for processing spatial data is applied to the territory of Blandy-les-Tours (77) and Saint-Antonin-Noble-Val (82) to observe land tenure, social and landscape dynamics.

Pohl C.,ETH Zurich | Pohl C.,Network for Transdisciplinary Research td net | Wuelser G.,Network for Transdisciplinary Research td net | Bebi P.,WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF | And 14 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2015

What are the factors that hinder or support publishing interdisciplinary research? What does a successful interdisciplinary publishing process look like? We address these questions by analyzing the publishing process of the interdisciplinary research project titled “Mountland.” Project researchers published most of their main results as a Special Feature of Ecology and Society. Using the story wall method and qualitative content analysis, we identified ten factors contributing to the success or failure of publishing interdisciplinary research. They can be assigned to four groups of resources: scientific resources, i.e., previous joint research, simultaneously written manuscripts; human resources, i.e., coordination, flexibility, composition of the team; integrative resources, i.e., vision of integration, chronology of results; and feedback resources, i.e., internal reviews, subject editors, external reviewers. According to this analysis, an ideal-typical publishing process necessitates, among other things, (1) a strong, interdisciplinary coordinator, (2) a clear shared vision of integration and a common framework, (3) flexibility in terms of money and time, (4) a certain sense of timing regarding when and how to exchange results and knowledge, (5) subject editors who are familiar with the specific project and its interdisciplinary merits, and (6) reviewers who are open minded about interdisciplinary efforts. © 2015 by the author(s).

Drucker D.G.,University of Tübingen | Bridault A.,21 Allee Of Luniversite | Cupillard C.,Service regional de lArcheologie de France Comte | Cupillard C.,Laboratoire Of Chrono Environnement | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2011

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is a flexible species that survived the significant climatic and environmental change toward warming temperature and forested landscape of the Late-glacial to early Holocene transition (ca. 17-6 ka cal BP). To investigate the conditions of ethological adaptation of red deer at that time, isotopic analysis of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur in collagen (δ13Ccoll, δ15Ncoll, δ34Scoll) and of oxygen in phosphate (δ18Op) were performed on red deer from archaeological sites of the French Jura and the western Alps. Fifty out of eighty two samples benefited from direct AMS radiocarbon dating, which confirmed the few number of red deer record during the cold Younger Dryas oscillation (ca. 12.8-11.6 ka cal BP) in Western Europe. The French Jura red deer showed a significant decrease in their δ13Ccoll values and increase in their δ15Ncoll values in the early Holocene compared to the Late-glacial, which is most likely due to the change in environment from open areas with low pedogenic activity to warm dense forests with increasing soil maturity. In contrast, the stable δ13Ccoll and δ15Ncoll values over time in the western Alps were thought to indicate a change to higher altitude for the red deer habitat in this mountainous region. A decrease of the δ18Op values between the Late-glacial and the early Holocene was observed in the western Alps red deer, in contrast to the expected increase with rising temperature which was indeed confirmed for the French Jura red deer. The multi-isotope results pointed to open areas home range at higher altitude for the Alps red deer in the Holocene compared to the previous period. The similarity of the δ34Scoll patterns with those of the δ15Ncoll suggested the primarily influence of soil activity on the 34S abundances recorded by red deer in a purely terrestrial context. Red deer of the French Jura on one hand and of the western Alps on the other hand showed different adaptive response to the global warming of the early Holocene, with an ethological change in the first case and a change in home range in the second case. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Drucker D.G.,University of Tübingen | Bridault A.,21 Allee Of Luniversite | Cupillard C.,Service regional de lArcheologie de France Comte | Cupillard C.,Laboratoire Of Chrono Environnement
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

The Jura Mountains are considered to be a region where phases of ice cap extension and retreat in response to climatic variation during the Upper Pleniglacial and Lateglacial (ca. 24,000-12,800 cal BP) are well reflected in the vegetation and animal spectrum composition. A new set of direct AMS radiocarbon dates of collagen from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) bones found at archaeological sites indicated an almost continuous occupation of the Jura region since the end of Last Glacial Maximum, at ca. 24,000 cal BP, until its local disappearance around 14,000 cal BP. To investigate a possible change in reindeer ecology, isotopic analysis of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur in collagen (δ 13C coll, δ 15N coll, δ 34S coll) were performed on the dated specimens. A decrease in the δ 13C coll and δ 15N coll values of Jura reindeer was found at the beginning of the Lateglacial period around 16,300-15,600 cal BP. While the change in δ 13C coll values was better explained by a change in diet composition with a decreasing input of lichens, the relative low δ 15N coll values of the reindeer during the Lateglacial was consistent with a geographical pattern of soil maturity inherited from the Last Glacial Maximum. The same pattern was also seen in the δ 15N coll values of the Lateglacial horse (Equus sp.) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) until ca. 14,000 cal BP. The decrease in reindeer δ 15N coll around 16,300-15,600 cal BP and around 21,000-20,000 cal BP in the Jura region may be linked to the occupation of territories recently released by glaciers that formed during the Heinrich event 1 and the Last Glacial Maximum, respectively. The associated high δ 15N coll and δ 34S coll values found in two specimens indicate the occurrence of areas of high soil activity in a globally cold context. This might correspond to the occupation of refugia in the close surroundings of the Jura region. Such local refugia could explain the capacity of the reindeer to occupy rapidly the newly available territories during phase of glacier retreat. The intensification of the Magdalenian human settlement could have been favored by these local ecosystem expansions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Carre J.,EHESP School of Public Health | Oller G.,Cite Administrative | Mudry J.,Laboratoire Of Chrono Environnement
Environnement, Risques et Sante | Year: 2010

Although France mandates the definition of catchment protection zones for all drinking water sources, implementation has been delayed in the districts that tap their water from karst areas. The complexity of flow patterns and especially the very high flow velocities through conduits in these aquifers make it difficult to delineate protection zones, which in any case have little if any effect on the episodes of turbidity and microbiological pollution that can affect these waters. It is therefore important to define, even before the protection zones, management tools and water processing methods that will facilitate permanent compliance with quality criteria, including turbidity in the water supply. The size of the inner protection zone must provide an appropriate response time in case of pollution. We propose a longitudinal extension of this zone corresponding to a 2-h transfer time for the fastest flow known for each specific system. The inner protection zone can be completed by satellite protection zones around the sinkholes. The part of the drainage basin not included in the inner protection zone should be the outer protection zone. In this "alert area", planning measures appropriate to the karstic environments should be applied.

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