Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne

France

Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne

France
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Laouami S.,University of Avignon | Laouami S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Messaoudi K.,University of Avignon | Messaoudi K.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2011

The diarrheal potential of a Bacillus cereus strain is essentially dictated by the amount of secreted nonhemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe). Expression of genes encoding Nhe is regulated by several factors, including the metabolic state of the cells. To identify metabolic sensors that could promote communication between central metabolism and nhe expression, we compared four strains of the B. cereus group in terms of metabolic and nhe expression capacities. We performed growth performance measurements, metabolite analysis, and mRNA measurements of strains F4430/73, F4810/72, F837/76, and PA cultured under anoxic and fully oxic conditions. The results showed that expression levels of nhe and ldhA, which encodes lactate dehydrogenase A (LdhA), were correlated in both aerobically and anaerobically grown cells. We examined the role of LdhA in the F4430/73 strain by constructing an ldhA mutant. The ldhA mutation was more deleterious to anaerobically grown cells than to aerobically grown cells, causing growth limitation and strong deregulation of key fermentative genes. More importantly, the ldhA mutation downregulated enterotoxin gene expression under both anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, with a more pronounced effect under anaerobiosis. Therefore, LdhA was found to exert a major control on both fermentative growth and enterotoxin expression, and it is concluded that there is a direct link between fermentative metabolism and virulence in B. cereus. The data presented also provide evidence that LdhA-dependent regulation of enterotoxin gene expression is oxygen independent. This study is the first report to describe a role of a fermentative enzyme in virulence in B. cereus. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Lamrabet O.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Pieulle L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Aubert C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Mouhamar F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Microbiology | Year: 2011

Although Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) is a strictly anaerobic bacterium, it is able to consume oxygen in different cellular compartments, including extensive periplasmic O 2 reduction with hydrogen as electron donor. The genome of DvH revealed the presence of cydAB and cox genes, encoding a quinol oxidase bd and a cytochrome c oxidase, respectively. In the membranes of DvH, we detected both quinol oxygen reductase [inhibited by heptyl-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO)] and cytochrome c oxidase activities. Spectral and HPLC data for the membrane fraction revealed the presence of o-, b- and d-type haems, in addition to a majority of c-type haems, but no a-type haem, in agreement with carbon monoxide-binding analysis. The cytochrome c oxidase is thus of the cc(o/b)o 3 type, a type not previously described. The monohaem cytochrome c 553 is an electron donor to the cytochrome c oxidase; its encoding gene is located upstream of the cox operon and is 50-fold more transcribed than coxI encoding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. Even when DvH is grown under anaerobic conditions in lactate/sulfate medium, the two terminal oxidase-encoding genes are expressed. Furthermore, the quinol oxidase bd-encoding genes are more highly expressed than the cox genes. The cox operon exhibits an atypical genomic organization, with the gene coxII located downstream of coxIV. The occurrence of these membrane-bound oxygen reductases in other strictly anaerobic Deltaproteobacteria is discussed. © 2011 SGM.


Lecampion C.,Aix - Marseille University | Lecampion C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Lecampion C.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Floris M.,Aix - Marseille University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Visualized Experiments | Year: 2016

Translation of mRNA to protein is a fundamental and highly regulated biological process. Polysome profiling is considered as a gold standard for the analysis of translational regulation. The method described here is an easy and economical way for fractionating polysomes from various plant tissues. A sucrose gradient is made without the need for a gradient maker by sequentially freezing each layer. Cytosolic extracts are then prepared in a buffer containing cycloheximide and chloramphenicol to immobilize the cytosolic and chloroplastic ribosomes to mRNA and are loaded onto the sucrose gradient. After centrifugation, six fractions are directly collected from the bottom to the top of the gradient, without piercing the ultracentrifugation tube. During collection, the absorbance at 260 nm is read continuously to generate a polysome profile that gives a snapshot of global translational activity. Fractions are then pooled to prepare three different mRNA populations: the polysomes, mRNAs bound to several ribosomes; the monosomes, mRNAs bound to one ribosome; and mRNAs that are not bound to ribosomes. mRNAs are then extracted. This protocol has been validated for different plants and tissues including Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and adult plants, Nicotiana benthamiana, Solanum lycopersicum, and Oryza sativa leaves. © 2016 Journal of Visualized Experiments.


Foulquier E.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne | Pompeo F.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne | Bernadac A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Espinosa L.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne | Galinier A.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2011

The YvcK protein was previously shown to be dispensable when B. subtilis cells are grown on glycolytic carbon sources but essential for growth and normal shape on gluconeogenic carbon sources. Here, we report that YvcK is localized as a helical-like pattern in the cell. This localization seems independent of the actin-like protein, MreB. A YvcK overproduction restores a normal morphology in an mreB mutant strain when bacteria are grown on PAB medium. Reciprocally, an additional copy of mreB restores a normal growth and morphology in a yvcK mutant strain when bacteria are grown on a gluconeogenic carbon source like gluconate. Furthermore, as already observed for the mreB mutant, the deletion of the gene encoding the penicillin-binding protein PBP1 restores growth and normal shape of a yvcK mutant on gluconeogenic carbon sources. The PBP1 is delocalized in an mreB mutant grown in the absence of magnesium and in a yvcK mutant grown on gluconate medium. Interestingly, its proper localization can be rescued by YvcK overproduction. Therefore, in gluconeogenic growth conditions, YvcK is required for the correct localization of PBP1 and hence for displaying a normal rod shape. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


PubMed | Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbial ecology | Year: 2013

Many marine bacteria demonstrate antibiotic activity against organisms of terrestrial origin. Low molecular weight antibiotics have been extracted and, in some cases, purified, but few attempts have been made to isolate high molecular weight antibiotics produced by marine bacteria. In the study reported here, a high molecular weight antibiotic was extracted from whole cells ofAlteromonas strain P18 (NCMB 1890) grown on 2216E medium. Purification included ammonium sulfate precipitation, ultracentrifugation, chromatography on DEAE cellulose, and gel filtration on Ultrogel. A rapid method for measuring specific activity of the antibiotic was developed.

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