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Laouami S.,University of Avignon | Laouami S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Messaoudi K.,University of Avignon | Messaoudi K.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2011

The diarrheal potential of a Bacillus cereus strain is essentially dictated by the amount of secreted nonhemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe). Expression of genes encoding Nhe is regulated by several factors, including the metabolic state of the cells. To identify metabolic sensors that could promote communication between central metabolism and nhe expression, we compared four strains of the B. cereus group in terms of metabolic and nhe expression capacities. We performed growth performance measurements, metabolite analysis, and mRNA measurements of strains F4430/73, F4810/72, F837/76, and PA cultured under anoxic and fully oxic conditions. The results showed that expression levels of nhe and ldhA, which encodes lactate dehydrogenase A (LdhA), were correlated in both aerobically and anaerobically grown cells. We examined the role of LdhA in the F4430/73 strain by constructing an ldhA mutant. The ldhA mutation was more deleterious to anaerobically grown cells than to aerobically grown cells, causing growth limitation and strong deregulation of key fermentative genes. More importantly, the ldhA mutation downregulated enterotoxin gene expression under both anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, with a more pronounced effect under anaerobiosis. Therefore, LdhA was found to exert a major control on both fermentative growth and enterotoxin expression, and it is concluded that there is a direct link between fermentative metabolism and virulence in B. cereus. The data presented also provide evidence that LdhA-dependent regulation of enterotoxin gene expression is oxygen independent. This study is the first report to describe a role of a fermentative enzyme in virulence in B. cereus. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Foulquier E.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne | Pompeo F.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne | Bernadac A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Espinosa L.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne | Galinier A.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Bacterienne
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2011

The YvcK protein was previously shown to be dispensable when B. subtilis cells are grown on glycolytic carbon sources but essential for growth and normal shape on gluconeogenic carbon sources. Here, we report that YvcK is localized as a helical-like pattern in the cell. This localization seems independent of the actin-like protein, MreB. A YvcK overproduction restores a normal morphology in an mreB mutant strain when bacteria are grown on PAB medium. Reciprocally, an additional copy of mreB restores a normal growth and morphology in a yvcK mutant strain when bacteria are grown on a gluconeogenic carbon source like gluconate. Furthermore, as already observed for the mreB mutant, the deletion of the gene encoding the penicillin-binding protein PBP1 restores growth and normal shape of a yvcK mutant on gluconeogenic carbon sources. The PBP1 is delocalized in an mreB mutant grown in the absence of magnesium and in a yvcK mutant grown on gluconate medium. Interestingly, its proper localization can be rescued by YvcK overproduction. Therefore, in gluconeogenic growth conditions, YvcK is required for the correct localization of PBP1 and hence for displaying a normal rod shape. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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