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Thiès Nones, Senegal

Ayssiwede S.B.,Lana | Zanmenou J.C.,Lana | Issa Y.,Lana | Issa Y.,Institute University des science et Techniques dAbeche l | And 6 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10) unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata), cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds) and cockroaches (Biatta oriental is) were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM) percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea) to 94.9% (C. vulgaris). The Crude Protein (CP) content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea) to 61.9% (cockroaches meal), with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%). Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9%) Ether Extract (EE) values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%), Moringa (9.8%), Leuceana (6.4%) and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%), while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF) content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera) to 16.8% (C. tora) while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea) to 19% (Citrullus seeds). A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%), followed by Cassia (15.2%), Moringa (13.6%), Leuceana (11.4%) and Sesbania leaves (7.1%), while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME) value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches) to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris) and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata) to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera). Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%), followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%), Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%), whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011. Source

Ayssiwede S.B.,Lana | Dieng A.,Laboratoire Of Bromatologie | Bello H.,Lana | Chrysostome C.A.A.M.,Faculte Des Science Agronomiques Of Luniversite Dabomey Calavi | And 6 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study carried out from July to October 2010 was to assess the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves meal inclusion in diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. Ninety six (96) indigenous Senegal chicks of 5 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 24 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 12 birds, corresponded to each of the four (4) dietary treatments MO0, MO8, MO16 and MO24 containing respectively 0, 8, 16 and 24% of Moringa leaves meal in substitution of groundnut cake meal. During the experiment (6-17th week old), zootechnical parameters of birds and economical data were recorded and analyzed per dietary treatment. At the end of the 12 weeks trial, the final Live Body Weights (LBW) were 721.60 g, 911.70 g, 812.85 g and 720.05 g/bird, the average daily weight gain (ADWG) were 6.49 g, 8.77 g, 7.61 g and 6.50 g/day, the Daily Feed Intake (DFI) of 39.10 g, 39.76 g, 36.28 g and 34.24 g/bird and the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of 7.58, 5.75, 6.11 et 7.24 respectively for birds fed MO0, MO8, MO16 and MO24 diets. The Moringa leaves meal inclusion in the diets up to 24% had not caused any adverse impact on LBW, ADWG, FCR, mortality, carcass and organs characteristics in birds compared to their controls. Except the significantly decrease of DFI obtained in birds of MO16 and MO24 treatments, significantly better growth performances, feed costs and economic margins were recorded in birds fed MO8 and MO16 diets. Thus these two dietary treatments were the only most economically profitable (respectively 357 and 206 FCFA/kg carcass of additional profit) compared to the control. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011. Source

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Cassia tora leaves meal inclusion in the diets of growing indigenous Senegal chickens on growth performances, carcass and organ characteristics and economic margins. A total of 88 indigenous Senegal chickens, 6 week old, were randomly allotted into 4 equal groups according to the proportions of C. tora leaves meal inclusion in partial substitution of groundnut cake meal (0%, group CT 0 ; 5%, group CT 5 ; 10%, group CT 10 and 15%, group CT 15). The mortality rate and growth performances (body weights, weight gains, food intakes and efficiencies) were weekly recorded from the 7 th to the 18 th week and carcass and organs traits were determined on 5 birds from each group at the 18 th week. The 5% C. tora leaves meal inclusion has significantly improved the weight growth (increases in body weights at the 16 th and 18 th weeks and of weight gains) and the mean carcass weight compare to the control group whereas greater inclusion percentages have not induced significant effects. The food intake was also gradually increased according to the inclusion of C. tora leaves but the food efficiency was significantly altered for 10% and 15% of leave inclusion. In addition, no deleterious effect on organs and on the yellow colour of skin or abdominal fat was evidenced. Consequently, a positive economic margin (205 CFCA/kg of carcass) was obtained with 5% C. tora leaves meal dietary inclusion compared to the control group. Source

Ayssiwede S.B.,Lana | Dieng A.,Laboratoire Of Bromatologie | Houinato M.R.B.,University Abomey Calavi | Chrysostome C.A.A.M.,University Abomey Calavi | And 4 more authors.
Annales de Medecine Veterinaire | Year: 2013

This review focuses on the place and the roles (socio-economic, cultural, religious, nutritional, family farming) of indigenous or village chickens in poverty alleviation and food security for people in African rural areas. It describes the characteristics of the different breeding systems (extensive and improved) and the chicken feeding practices observed in this livestock sector. After having reviewed the existing phenotypic varieties in the African indigenous chickens population, and the reproductive traits and growth performance of these birds in Senegal and others countries of Africa, the overview discuss and highlights the majors constraints (housing, high mortality, avian diseases, predators, shortage and irregularity of feed supply, microcredit...) that still hinder the traditional poultry development in Senegal and in sub-Saharan Africa. Source

Ayssiwede S.B.,Lana | Dieng A.,niversite dAbomey Calavi | Chrysostome C.,Laboratoire Of Bromatologie | Ossebi W.,Lana | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

In the prospect of the Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal using as a protein ingredient source for indigenous Senegal chickens diets, a study was carried out to determine their nutrient utilization and nutritional value when incorporated at various levels in the diets. Twenty adult indigenous chickens with an average body weight of 1.22 kg were conducted in metabolic cages and allocated in four groups of five birds each. The groups were corresponded to four dietary treatments (LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21) containing respectively 0, 7, 14 and 21% of Leuceana leaves meal. During the trial, birds were weighed at the beginning and at the end. Feed offered and refused, collected fresh excreta were weighed daily and the droppings were oven-dried at 60°C and ground per bird for six days. The ingredients and experimental diets used and collected excreta were subjected to chemical analyses. Results showed that the Leuceana leaves were relatively rich in protein (24.9% DM), ether extract (6.4% DM), crude fiber (14.2% DM) and Neutral detergent fiber (22.4% DM). It contained respectively 43.1% and 11.4% DM of nitrogen free extract and ash, particularly calcium (1.8%) and potassium (1.1% DM) and 2573.8 kcal/kg DM of metabolizable energy. The results of the trial showed that the inclusion of L. leucocephala leaves meal in the diet at 21% level, has no significant adverse effect on feed intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and nutrients utilization (except ether extract) of adult indigenous Senegal chickens. It has significantly (p<0.05) improved the crude protein and metabolizable energy utilization in birds fed the 7% level inclusion diet (LL7). © Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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