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Laville R.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Castel C.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Fattarsi K.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologies Vegetales Appliquees Aux Plantes Aromatiques Et Medicinales | Roy C.,DuPont Company | And 5 more authors.
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2013

In line with the sustainable development objectives of the Claryssime® research programme, a by-product of Salvia sclarea concrete (low sclareol by-product) obtained from industrial sclareol purification, was subjected to full chemical fractionation, characterization and assessment of its economic potential as a by-product synergy candidate. Fractionation and intensive semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography isolation led to the characterization of several compounds that belong to different metabolite families, including flavonoids [salvigenin (3), 1.8%], diterpenoids [sclareol (6), 4.6%] and triterpenoids [oleanolic acid (10), 6.2%], and triacylglycerols (60.8%). The triacylglycerol fraction was further studied: its total fatty acid content was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and all the triacylglycerols were described by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF) analysis. The reproducibility of the low sclareol by-product chemical composition was assessed and validated by quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector analysis and its evolution during the process was investigated via the analysis of a rich sclareol by-product. Such an analytical approach, from the improved fractionation to the triacylglycerol analysis via UPLC-QToF, can be applied to many industrial concretes or other by-products from natural ingredient extraction. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Jullien F.,Jean Monnet University | Jullien F.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologies Vegetales Appliquees Aux Plantes Aromatiques Et Medicinales | Moja S.,Jean Monnet University | Moja S.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologies Vegetales Appliquees Aux Plantes Aromatiques Et Medicinales | And 17 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

In this paper we characterize three sTPSs: a germacrene D (LaGERDS), a (E)-β-caryophyllene (LaCARS) and a τ-cadinol synthase (LaCADS). τ-cadinol synthase is reported here for the first time and its activity was studied in several biological models including transiently or stably transformed tobacco species. Three dimensional structure models of LaCADS and Ocimum basilicum γ-cadinene synthase were built by homology modeling using the template structure of Gossypium arboreum δ-cadinene synthase. The depiction of their active site organization provides evidence of the global influence of the enzymes on the formation of τ-cadinol: instead of a unique amino-acid, the electrostatic properties and solvent accessibility of the whole active site in LaCADS may explain the stabilization of the cadinyl cation intermediate. Quantitative PCR performed from leaves and inflorescences showed two patterns of expression. LaGERDS and LaCARS were mainly expressed during early stages of flower development and, at these stages, transcript levels paralleled the accumulation of the corresponding terpene products (germacrene D and (E)-β-caryophyllene). By contrast, the expression level of LaCADS was constant in leaves and flowers. Phylogenetic analysis provided informative results on potential duplication process leading to sTPS diversification in lavender. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Champagne A.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologies Vegetales Appliquees Aux Plantes Aromatiques Et Medicinales | Bernillon S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Moing A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Rolin D.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2010

Tropical root and tuber crops are staple foods in developing countries where they are the main source of carbohydrates and a potential source of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids. Enhancing carotenoid content has considerable potential for improving human nutrition in these areas. Except for cassava and sweet potato, carotenoid content has not been evaluated in large germplasm collections. We describe a simple HPLC-DAD-based protocol for the reliable characterization of carotenoids in root crops. Less than 5% variation in carotenoid content was found among samples collected from tubers of the same plant or from clones of the same genotype. Carotenoids were evaluated in 153 accessions representing 10 different species. Each species had a specific profile of carotenoids, and accessions of the same species differed greatly in their individual content. The database assembled during this study represents a useful tool for nutritionists and breeders working on biofortification of root crops with carotenoids. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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