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Champagne A.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologies Vegetales Appliquees Aux Plantes Aromatiques Et Medicinales | Bernillon S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Moing A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Rolin D.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2010

Tropical root and tuber crops are staple foods in developing countries where they are the main source of carbohydrates and a potential source of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids. Enhancing carotenoid content has considerable potential for improving human nutrition in these areas. Except for cassava and sweet potato, carotenoid content has not been evaluated in large germplasm collections. We describe a simple HPLC-DAD-based protocol for the reliable characterization of carotenoids in root crops. Less than 5% variation in carotenoid content was found among samples collected from tubers of the same plant or from clones of the same genotype. Carotenoids were evaluated in 153 accessions representing 10 different species. Each species had a specific profile of carotenoids, and accessions of the same species differed greatly in their individual content. The database assembled during this study represents a useful tool for nutritionists and breeders working on biofortification of root crops with carotenoids. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Jullien F.,Jean Monnet University | Jullien F.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologies Vegetales Appliquees Aux Plantes Aromatiques Et Medicinales | Moja S.,Jean Monnet University | Moja S.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologies Vegetales Appliquees Aux Plantes Aromatiques Et Medicinales | And 17 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

In this paper we characterize three sTPSs: a germacrene D (LaGERDS), a (E)-β-caryophyllene (LaCARS) and a τ-cadinol synthase (LaCADS). τ-cadinol synthase is reported here for the first time and its activity was studied in several biological models including transiently or stably transformed tobacco species. Three dimensional structure models of LaCADS and Ocimum basilicum γ-cadinene synthase were built by homology modeling using the template structure of Gossypium arboreum δ-cadinene synthase. The depiction of their active site organization provides evidence of the global influence of the enzymes on the formation of τ-cadinol: instead of a unique amino-acid, the electrostatic properties and solvent accessibility of the whole active site in LaCADS may explain the stabilization of the cadinyl cation intermediate. Quantitative PCR performed from leaves and inflorescences showed two patterns of expression. LaGERDS and LaCARS were mainly expressed during early stages of flower development and, at these stages, transcript levels paralleled the accumulation of the corresponding terpene products (germacrene D and (E)-β-caryophyllene). By contrast, the expression level of LaCADS was constant in leaves and flowers. Phylogenetic analysis provided informative results on potential duplication process leading to sTPS diversification in lavender. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Pasquet J.-C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pasquet J.-C.,Apt Therapeutics, Inc. | Changenet V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Changenet V.,Apt Therapeutics, Inc. | And 21 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2016

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a cereal disease caused by Fusarium graminearum, a fungus able to produce type B trichothecenes on cereals, including deoxynivalenol (DON), which is harmful for humans and animals. Resistance to FHB is quantitative, and the mechanisms underlying resistance are poorly understood. Resistance has been related to the ability to conjugate DON into a glucosylated form, deoxynivalenol-3-O-glucose (D3G), by secondary metabolism UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs). However, functional analyses have never been performed within a single host species. Here, using the model cereal species Brachypodium distachyon, we show that the Bradi5g03300 UGT converts DON into D3G in planta. We present evidence that a mutation in Bradi5g03300 increases root sensitivity to DON and the susceptibility of spikes to F. graminearum, while overexpression confers increased root tolerance to the mycotoxin and spike resistance to the fungus. The dynamics of expression and conjugation suggest that the speed of DON conjugation rather than the increase of D3G per se is a critical factor explaining the higher resistance of the overexpressing lines. A detached glumes assay showed that overexpression but not mutation of the Bradi5g03300 gene alters primary infection by F. graminearum, highlighting the involvement of DON in early steps of infection. Together, these results indicate that early and efficient UGT-mediated conjugation of DON is necessary and sufficient to establish resistance to primary infection by F. graminearum and highlight a novel strategy to promote FHB resistance in cereals. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Laville R.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Castel C.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Fattarsi K.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologies Vegetales Appliquees Aux Plantes Aromatiques Et Medicinales | Roy C.,DuPont Company | And 5 more authors.
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2013

In line with the sustainable development objectives of the Claryssime® research programme, a by-product of Salvia sclarea concrete (low sclareol by-product) obtained from industrial sclareol purification, was subjected to full chemical fractionation, characterization and assessment of its economic potential as a by-product synergy candidate. Fractionation and intensive semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography isolation led to the characterization of several compounds that belong to different metabolite families, including flavonoids [salvigenin (3), 1.8%], diterpenoids [sclareol (6), 4.6%] and triterpenoids [oleanolic acid (10), 6.2%], and triacylglycerols (60.8%). The triacylglycerol fraction was further studied: its total fatty acid content was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and all the triacylglycerols were described by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF) analysis. The reproducibility of the low sclareol by-product chemical composition was assessed and validated by quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector analysis and its evolution during the process was investigated via the analysis of a rich sclareol by-product. Such an analytical approach, from the improved fractionation to the triacylglycerol analysis via UPLC-QToF, can be applied to many industrial concretes or other by-products from natural ingredient extraction. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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