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Gaume B.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Chimie Marines | Gaume B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bourgougnon N.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Chimie Marines | Auzoux-Bordenave S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether; TCS) is an antibacterial agent incorporated in a wide variety of household and personal care products. Because of its partial elimination in sewage treatment plants, TCS is commonly detected in natural waters and sediments. Moreover, due to its high hydrophobicity, TCS accumulates in fatty tissues in various aquatic organisms. TCS can be converted into methyl-triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro- 2′-methoxydiphenyl ether; MTCS) after biological methylation. In this study, the acute cytotoxicity of TCS and MTCS in short-term in vitro experiments was assessed on cell cultures from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The results showed that morphology and density of hemocyte are affected from a concentration of 8 μM TCS. Using the XTT reduction assay, TCS has been demonstrated to decrease hemocyte metabolism activity in a dose- and time-dependent exposure. The IC 50 was evaluated at 6 μM for both hemocyte and gill cells after a 24 h-incubation with TCS. A significant cytotoxicity of MTCS was also observed from 4 μM in 24 h-old hemocyte culture. Our results reveal a toxic effect of TCS and MTCS on immune (hemocytes) and/or respiratory cells (gill cells) of the abalone, species living in coastal waters areas and exposed to anthropogenic pollution. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Tripoteau L.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Chimie Marines | Tripoteau L.,Coastal Zones Research Institute Inc. | Bedoux G.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Chimie Marines | Gagnon J.,Coastal Zones Research Institute Inc. | Bourgougnon N.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Chimie Marines
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Herpes Simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), responsible for the common cold sore, can also lead to serious infections in immunocompromised people. Current antiviral chemotherapies face obstacles including the toxicity of therapeutic molecules, interference with normal cellular metabolism, genetic variability and the incurable nature of latent infections. Therefore, the search for new treatments is a public health issue. Marine invertebrates have held great potential for finding novel antiviral compounds. Little is known, about the antiviral activities of compounds isolated from holothurians. In New Brunswick, holothurian is fished for its edible bodywall and muscle, but its processing generates high amounts of byproducts. In vitro evaluation of the anti-HSV-1 activity by cell viability was performed on nine hydrolysates obtained by enzyme-assisted extraction and four solvent extractions from aquapharyngeal bulb and internal organs of Cucumaria frondosa at an MOI of 0.001 ID50/cells. After 72 h, four enzymatic hydrolysates from the aquapharyngeal bulb presented effective antiherpetic activities (EC50 = 7.2-15.2 μg/mL). After evaluation at a higher MOI (0.01 ID50/cells), the most efficient extract (Papain hydrolysate) was fractionated to identify the active fraction. The fraction superior to 100 kDa showed the highest antiherpetic activity (EC50: 18.2 μg/mL). In conclusion, upgrading byproducts of sea cucumber fisheries offers new sources of bioactive molecules. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Kulshreshtha G.,Dalhousie University | Burlot A.-S.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Chimie Marines | Marty C.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Chimie Marines | Critchley A.,Acadian Seaplants Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Marine Drugs | Year: 2015

Codium fragile and Chondrus crispus are, respectively, green and red seaweeds which are abundant along the North Atlantic coasts. We investigated the chemical composition and antiviral activity of enzymatic extracts of C. fragile (CF) and C. crispus (CC). On a dry weight basis, CF consisted of 11% protein, 31% neutral sugars, 0.8% sulfate, 0.6% uronic acids, and 49% ash, while CC contained 27% protein, 28% neutral sugars, 17% sulfate, 1.8% uronic acids, and 25% ash. Enzyme-assisted hydrolysis improved the extraction efficiency of bioactive materials. Commercial proteases and carbohydrases significantly improved (p ≤ 0.001) biomass yield (40%-70% dry matter) as compared to aqueous extraction (20%-25% dry matter). Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis enhanced the recovery of protein, neutral sugars, uronic acids, and sulfates. The enzymatic hydrolysates exhibited significant activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) with EC50 of 77.6-126.8 μg/mL for CC and 36.5-41.3 μg/mL for CF, at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.001 ID50/cells without cytotoxity (1-200 μg/mL). The extracts obtained from proteases (P1) and carbohydrases (C3) were also effective at higher virus MOI of 0.01 ID50/cells without cytotoxity. Taken together, these results indicate the potential application of enzymatic hydrolysates of C. fragile and C. crispus in functional food and antiviral drug discovery. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Hardouin K.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Chimie Marines | Burlot A.-S.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Chimie Marines | Umami A.,Laboratoire Of Biotechnologie Et Chimie Marines | Umami A.,Diponegoro University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2013

Proliferations of green, brown and red algae appear in shallow sandy bays in North Brittany (France), and they represent a real economic constraint for the affected communities. In addition to the nuisance for residents and tourist activity, the communities must carry out systematic collection. The collected algae are spread on agricultural land spreading or composted, but these solutions reach their limits rapidly, bringing little added value to the collected algae. Seaweeds are potentially excellent sources of bioactive metabolites that could represent useful leads in the development of new functional ingredients in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to propose the use of an enzyme-assisted extraction as a tool to improve the extraction efficiency of antiviral compounds from three invasive French seaweeds. We selected the red Solieria chordalis, the green Ulva sp. and the brown Sargassum muticum as models for these experiments. In comparison with water extraction at 50 °C for the same time of treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis increased the yields. The data suggest the potential of enzymatic hydrolysis for producing active fractions in the function of the algal biomass, the behaviour of the cell wall, the selectivity and the action of the enzyme. Enzymatic hydrolysis appeared less effective for polyphenol recovery, but was a promising softer technique for recovering proteins, neutral sugars, uronic acids and sulphate groups. The solvent-free process, higher extraction rate and higher yields, coupled to time-saving and lower cost, make this method economical and sustainable. By using a cell viability assay, all hydrolysate fractions tested were shown to be non-toxic to Vero cells. After 3 days of treatment, no microscopically visible alteration of normal cell morphology was observed even at 500 μg mL-1. S. chordalis extracts have an effective antiviral activity with EC50 between 23.0 and 101.1 μg mL-1 at a multiplicity of infection of 0.001 ID50/cells; 100 % and 98 % cellular protection were obtained for 500 μg mL-1 of hydrolysate extracts carbohydrase C3 and blank, respectively. Other extracts from S. chordalis inhibited viral production less effectively. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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