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Camomilla V.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Bonci T.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Bonci T.,University of Lyon | Bonci T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2015

When using stereophotogrammetry and skin-markers, the reconstruction of skeletal movement is affected by soft-tissue artefact (STA). This may be described by considering a marker-cluster as a deformable shape undergoing a geometric transformation formed by a non-rigid (change in size and shape) and a rigid component (translation and rotation displacements). A modal decomposition of the STA, relative to an appropriately identified basis, allows the separation of these components. This study proposes a mathematical model of the STA that embeds only its rigid component and estimates the relevant six mode amplitudes as linear functions of selected proximal and distal joint rotations during the analysed task. This model was successfully calibrated for thigh and shank using simultaneously recorded pin- and skin-marker data of running volunteers. The root mean square difference between measured and model-estimated STA rigid component was 1.1(0.8). mm (median (inter-quartile range) over 3 subjects × 5 trials × 33 markers coordinates), and it was mostly due to the wobbling not included in the model. Knee joint kinematics was estimated using reference pin-marker data and skin-marker data, both raw and compensated with the model-estimated STA. STA compensation decreased inaccuracy on average from 6% to 1% for flexion/extension, from 43% to 18% for the other two rotations, and from 69% to 25% for the linear displacements. Thus, the proposed mathematical model provides an STA estimate which can be effectively used within optimal bone pose and joint kinematics estimators for artefact compensation, and for simulations aimed at their comparative assessments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dumas R.,University of Lyon | Dumas R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Dumas R.,Laboratoire Of Biomecanique Et Mecanique Des Chocs Lbmc | Moissenet F.,Laboratoire Danalyse Du Mouvement Et Of La Posture | And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine | Year: 2014

One of the open issues in musculoskeletal modelling remains the choice of the objective function that is used to solve the muscular redundancy problem. Some authors have recently proposed to introduce joint reaction forces in the objective function, and the question of the weights associated with musculo-tendon forces and joint reaction forces arose. This question typically deals with a multi-objective optimisation problem. The aim of this study is to illustrate, on a planar elbow model, the ensemble of optimal solutions (i.e. Pareto front) and the solution of a global objective method that represent different compromises between musculo-tendon forces, joint compression force, and joint shear force. The solutions of the global objective method, based either on the minimisation of the sum of the squared musculo-tendon forces alone or on the minimisation of the squared joint compression force and shear force together, are in the same range. Minimising either the squared joint compression force or shear force alone leads to extreme force values. The exploration of the compromises between these forces illustrates the existence of major interactions between the muscular and joint structures. Indeed, the joint reaction forces relate to the projection of the sum of the musculo-tendon forces. An illustration of these interactions, due to the projection relation, is that the Pareto front is not a large surface, like in a typical three-objective optimisation, but almost a curve. These interactions, and the possibility to take them into account by a multi-objective optimisation, seem essential for the application of musculoskeletal modelling to joint pathologies. © IMechE 2014. Source

Bonci T.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Bonci T.,University of Lyon | Bonci T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bonci T.,Laboratoire Of Biomecanique Et Mecanique Des Chocs Lbmc | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2015

When stereophotogrammetry and skin-markers are used, bone-pose estimation is jeopardised by the soft tissue artefact (STA). At marker-cluster level, this can be represented using a modal series of rigid (RT; translation and rotation) and non-rigid (NRT; homothety and scaling) geometrical transformations. The NRT has been found to be smaller than the RT and claimed to have a limited impact on bone-pose estimation. This study aims to investigate this matter and comparatively assessing the propagation of both STA components to bone-pose estimate, using different numbers of markers.Twelve skin-markers distributed over the anterior aspect of a thigh were considered and STA time functions were generated for each of them, as plausibly occurs during walking, using an ad hoc model and represented through the geometrical transformations. Using marker-clusters made of four to 12 markers affected by these STAs, and a Procrustes superimposition approach, bone-pose and the relevant accuracy were estimated. This was done also for a selected four marker-cluster affected by STAs randomly simulated by modifying the original STA NRT component, so that its energy fell in the range 30-90% of total STA energy.The pose error, which slightly decreased while increasing the number of markers in the marker-cluster, was independent from the NRT amplitude, and was always null when the RT component was removed. It was thus demonstrated that only the RT component impacts pose estimation accuracy and should thus be accounted for when designing algorithms aimed at compensating for STA. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dumas R.,University of Lyon | Dumas R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Dumas R.,Laboratoire Of Biomecanique Et Mecanique Des Chocs Lbmc | Dumas R.,Foro Italico University of Rome | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering | Year: 2015

When joint kinematics is analyzed using noninvasive stereophotogrammetry, movements of the skin markers relative to the underlying bone are regarded as artefacts (soft tissue artefact (STA)). Recent literature suggests that an appropriate estimation of joint kinematics may be obtained by compensating for only a portion of the STA, but no evidence for this case has been reported, and which portion of the STA should be selected remains an issue. The aim of this study was to fill this gap. A modal approach was used to represent the STA. This resulted in a series of additive components (modes) and in the possibility to select a subset of them. The following STA definitions were used: individual skin marker displacement (MD), marker-cluster geometrical transformation (GT), and skin envelope shape variation (SV). An STA approximation for each of the three definitions was obtained by ordering modes on the basis of their contribution to the total STA energy and truncating the relevant series at 90% of it. A fourth approximation was obtained when the GT definition was used, by selecting the modes that represented the marker-cluster rigid transformation (i.e., three translation and three rotation modes). The different STA approximations were compared using data obtained during the stance phase of running of three volunteers carrying both pin and skin markers. The STA was measured and knee joint kinematics estimated using four skin marker datasets compensated for the above-mentioned STA approximations. Accuracy was assessed by comparing results to the reference kinematics obtained using pin markers. The different approximations resulted in different numbers of modes. For joint angles, the compensation efficiency across the STA approximations based on an energy threshold was almost equivalent. The median root mean square errors (RMSEs) were below 1deg for flexion/extension and 2 deg for both abduction/adduction and internal/external rotation. For the joint displacements, the compensation efficiency depended on the STA approximation. Median RMSEs for anterior/posterior displacement ranged from 1 to 4mm using either MD, GT, or SV truncated series. The RMSEs were virtually null when the STA was approximated using only the GT rigid modes. This result, together with the limited number of modes used by this approximation (i.e., three translations and three rotations of the marker-cluster), makes the STA rigid component and a good candidate for designing an STA model to be incorporated in an enhanced bone pose estimator. Copyright © 2015 by ASME. Source

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