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Hadrich I.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | Ranque S.,Aix - Marseille University | Ranque S.,Marseille University Hospital Center
Current Fungal Infection Reports | Year: 2015

Typing is applied to highlight the genetic relationships between environmental and clinical fungal isolates involved in colonization or infection. A variety of techniques can be used to type fungi, depending on the epidemiological question and the available equipment. The use of typing techniques during clinical fungal outbreak investigations demonstrated patient-to-patient propagation in dermatophytoses outbreaks, patient-to-health-care worker and health-care worker-to-patient transmission in yeast infection outbreaks, airborne patient-to-patient transmission of the non-cultivable Pneumocystis jirovecii fungus involved in pneumonia outbreaks, and environmental sources of several mold outbreaks including aspergillosis or fusariosis keratitis. Typing was also useful to trace the source of invasive fungal disease outbreaks or epidemics, such as contaminated medical devices. More generally, typing provided important insights into fungal outbreak characteristics and helped to implement appropriate measures to control fungal infections, which are often severe, progress rapidly, and are difficult to diagnose and treat. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Wang D.Y.,Guangxi University | Wang D.Y.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Hadj-Henni L.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Thierry S.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Aspergillus flavus is second only to A. fumigatus in causing invasive aspergillosis and it is the major agent responsible for fungal sinusitis, keratitis and endophthalmitis in many countries in the Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia. Despite the growing challenge due to A. flavus, data on the molecular epidemiology of this fungus remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to develop a new typing method based on the detection of VNTR (Variable number tandem repeat) markers. Eight VNTR markers located on 6 different chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8) of A. flavus were selected, combined by pairs for multiplex amplifications and tested on 30 unrelated isolates and six reference strains. The Simpson index for individual markers ranged from 0.398 to 0.818. A combined loci index calculated with all the markers yielded an index of 0.998. The MLVA (Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis) technique proved to be specific and reproducible. In a second time, a total of 55 isolates from Chinese avian farms and from a Tunisian hospital have been evaluated. One major cluster of genotypes could be defined by using the graphing algorithm termed Minimum Spanning Tree. This cluster comprised most of the isolates collected in an avian farm in southern China. The MLVA technique should be considered as an excellent and cost-effective typing method that could be used in many laboratories without the need for sophisticated equipment. © 2012 Wang et al. Source


Hadrich I.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | Drira I.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | Neji S.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | Mahfoud N.,Service du Laboratoire | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Aspergillosis is one of the most common causes of death in captive birds. Aspergillus fumigatus accounts for approximately 95% of aspergillosis cases and Aspergillus flavus is the second most frequent organism associated with avian infections. In the present study, the fungi were grown from avian clinical samples (post-mortem lung material) and environmental samples (eggs, food and litter). Microsatellite markers were used to type seven clinical avian isolates and 22 environmental isolates of A. flavus. A. flavus was the only species (28% prevalence) detected in the avian clinical isolates, whereas this species ranked third (19 %) after members of the genera Penicillium (39 %) and Cladosporium (21 %) in the environmental samples. Upon microsatellite analysis, five to eight distinct alleles were detected for each marker. The marker with the highest discriminatory power had eight alleles and a 0.852 D value. The combination of all six markers yielded a 0.991 D value with 25 distinct genotypes. One clinical avian isolate (lung biopsy) and one environmental isolate (egg) shared the same genotype. Microsatellite typing of A. flavus grown from avian and environmental samples displayed an excellent discriminatory power and 100% reproducibility. This study showed a clustering of clinical and environmental isolates, which were clearly separated. Based upon these results, aspergillosis in birds may be induced by a great diversity of isolates. © 2013 SGM. Source


Hadrich I.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | Amouri I.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | Neji S.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | Mahfoud N.,Service du Laboratoire | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Aspergillus flavus is the second leading cause of allergic, invasive, and colonizing fungal diseases in humans, and also the second most frequent organism associated with avian infections. Currently, it is not known whether there is a link between the environmental isolates and/or human isolates of A. flavus and those responsible for aspergillosis in birds. Microsatellite typing was used to analyze 29 A. flavus clinical and environmental avian isolates and 63 human clinical isolates collected from patients with a variety of aspergillosis diseases. The combination of all six markers yielded 77 different genotypes with a 0.98 D value. A. flavus genotypes obtained from avian isolates were compared with those obtained from human clinical and environmental samples. The standardized indices of association I A and rBarD were significantly different from zero (p < 0.01), suggesting a prevailing clonal reproduction. There was high genetic diversity between the hospital and poultry environments of A. flavus isolates. The human environmental population was significantly differentiated from environmental and clinical avian populations (F st > 0.25). The avian clinical subpopulation exchanged few strains with the environmental human (N m = 7.24) and avian (N m = 6.60) populations. The minimum spanning tree analysis identified three A. flavus genotype clusters that were highly structured according to the isolation source (p < 10-4). © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Hadrich I.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | Neji S.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | Drira I.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | Trabelsi H.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Parasitaire Et Fongique | And 4 more authors.
Medical Mycology | Year: 2013

Aspergillus flavus is the second most important Aspergillus species associated with aspergillosis and the incidence of infections caused by it are increasing in the immunocompromised population. This species is of major epidemiological importance in regions with a dry and hot climate. Despite the growing clinical significance of A. flavus, data on its molecular epidemiology are scarce. This study was aimed at examining whether isolates from distinct genotypes were involved in distinct clinical forms of aspergillosis. Sixty-three clinical isolates of A. flavus recovered from 35 patients with various clinical presentations of aspergillosis were characterized by microsatellite typing. The highest discriminatory power for a single locus was obtained with the AFLA1 marker, which had 14 distinct alleles and a 0.903 D value. The combination of all six markers yielded 48 different genotypes with a 0.994 D value. There was a considerable genetic diversity in the isolates and patients with invasive aspergillosis were usually colonized by multiples genotypes. There was no evidence that a given genotype was associated with a particular clinical presentation of A. flavus aspergillosis. The occurrence of more than one genotype in clinical samples indicates that a patient may be infected by multiple genotypes and that any particular isolate from a clinical specimen may not necessarily be the one causing aspergillosis. © 2013 ISHAM. Source

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