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Diederich M.,Seoul National UniversitySeoul | Cerella C.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2016

Natural compounds are the fundament of pharmacological treatments and more than 50% of all anticancer drugs are of natural origins or at least derived from scaffolds present in Nature. Over the last 25 years, molecular mechanisms triggered by natural anticancer compounds were investigated. Emerging research showed that molecules of natural origins are useful for both preventive and therapeutic purposes by targeting essential hallmarks and enabling characteristics described by Hanahan and Weinberg. Moreover, natural compounds were able to change the differentiation status of selected cell types. One of the earliest response of cells treated by pharmacologically active compounds is the change of its morphology leading to ultra-structural perturbations: changes in membrane composition, cytoskeleton integrity, alterations of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and of the nucleus lead to formation of morphological alterations that are a characteristic of both compound and cancer type preceding cell death. Apoptosis and autophagy were traditionally considered as the most prominent cell death or cell death-related mechanisms. By now multiple other cell death modalities were described and most likely involved in response to chemotherapeutic treatment. It can be hypothesized that especially necrosis-related phenotypes triggered by various treatments or evolving from apoptotic or autophagic mechanisms, provide a more efficient therapeutic outcome depending on cancer type and genetic phenotype of the patient. In fact, the recent discovery of multiple regulated forms of necrosis and the initial elucidation of the corresponding cell signaling pathways appear nowadays as important tools to clarify the immunogenic potential of non-canonical forms of cell death induction. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Teiten M.-H.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Dicato M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Diederich M.,Seoul National University
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2013

Epigenetic alterations correspond to changes in DNA methylation, covalent modifications of histones, or altered miRNA expression patterns. These three mechanisms are interconnected and appear to be key players in tumor progression and failure of conventional chemotherapy. Dietary components emerged as a promising source of new epigenetically active compounds able to reverse these alterations and to actively regulate gene expression as well as molecular targets implicated in tumorigenesis. The polyphenolic compound curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow spice that enters into the composition of curry, already described for its diverse and broad biological activities, is nowadays well described as an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase so that it is considered as a DNA hypomethylating agent. It reestablishes the balance between histone acetyl transferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC 1, 3, 4, 5, 8) activity to selectively activate or inactivate the expression of genes implicated in cancer death and progression, respectively. Finally curcumin modulates miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-21, miR-22, miR-26, miR-101, miR-146, miR-200, miR-203, and let-7) and their multiple target genes. In conclusion, this dietary compound is able to restore the epigenetic regulation balance and appears as an attractive preventive and/or therapeutic approach against human cancer. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Radogna F.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Dicato M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Diederich M.,Seoul National University
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Cell death plays an essential role in the development of organs, homeostasis, and cancer. Apoptosis and programmed necrosis are two major types of cell death, characterized by different cell morphology and pathways. Accumulating evidence shows autophagy as a new alternative target to treat tumor resistance. Besides its well-known pro-survival role, autophagy can be a physiological cell death process linking apoptosis and programmed necrosis cell death pathways, by various molecular mediators.Here, we summarize the effects of pharmacologically active compounds as modulators of different types of cancer cell death depending on the cellular context. Indeed, current findings show that both natural and synthetic compounds regulate the interplay between apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis stimulating common molecular mediators and sharing common organelles. In response to specific stimuli, the same death signal can cause cells to switch from one cell death modality to another depending on the cellular setting.The discovery of important interconnections between the different cell death mediators and signaling pathways, regulated by pharmacologically active compounds, presents novel opportunities for the targeted treatment of cancer. The aim of this review is to highlight the potential role of these compounds for context-specific anticancer therapy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Schnekenburger M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Dicato M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Diederich M.,Seoul National University
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2014

Carcinogenesis is a complex and multistep process that involves the accumulation of successive transformational events driven by genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that affect major cellular processes and pathways such as proliferation, differentiation, invasion and survival. Massive deregulation of all components of the epigenetic machinery is a hallmark of cancer. These alterations affect normal gene regulation and impede normal cellular processes including cell cycle, DNA repair, cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Since epigenetic alterations appear early in cancer development and represent potentially initiating events during carcinogenesis, they are considered as promising targets for anti-cancer interventions by chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic strategies using epigenetically active agents. In this field, plant-derived compounds have shown promise. Here, we will give an overview of plant-derived compounds displaying anticancer properties that interfere with the epigenetic machinery. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Schnekenburger M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Karius T.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Diederich M.,Seoul National University
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are phase II drug detoxifying enzymes that play an essential role in the maintenance of cell integrity and protection against DNA damage by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione to a wide variety of exo- and endogenous electrophilic substrates. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), the gene encoding the pi-class GST, is frequently inactivated by acquired somatic CpG island promoter hypermethylation in multiple cancer subtypes including prostate, breast, liver, and blood cancers. Epigenetically mediated GSTP1 silencing is associated with enhanced cancer susceptibility by decreasing its "caretaker" gene function, which tends to promote neoplastic transformation allowing cells to acquire additional alterations. Thus, this epigenetic alteration is now considered as a cancer biomarker but could as well play a driving role in multistep cancer development, especially well documented in prostate cancer development. The present review discusses applications of epigenetic alterations affecting GSTP1 in cancer medicine used alone or in combination with other biomarkers for cancer detection and diagnosis as well as for future targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions including by dietary agents. © 2014 Schnekenburger, Karius and Diederich.


Orlikova B.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Diederich M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

On December 23rd, 1971, President Richard Nixon signed the National Cancer Act and invested more than $ 100 million "to launch an intensive campaign to find a cure for cancer". Today, despite these considerable efforts, cancer still remains a very aggressive silent killer all over the world. Moreover, over the last decade, novel synthetic chemotherapeutic agents currently in use in the clinics did not succeed in fulfilling their expectations even though they are very cost-intensive. In parallel, there is increasing evidence for the potential of plant-derived compounds on the inhibition of different steps of tumor genesis and associated inflammatory processes, underlining the importance of these products in cancer prevention and therapy. This review summarizes the impact of selected natural compounds on the eight major alterations, known as the cancer hallmarks, and also on their two enabling characteristics that were coined by Hanahan and Weinberg earlier. Altogether these ten alterations are responsible for the progressive transition of healthy cells into neoplastic ones and their further dissemination in the body. With this review, we try to highlight molecular mechanisms by which plant extracts and their purified active components fight and overcome these pathological variations of the cell signaling pathways for the improvement of prevention and therapy. We truly believe that all diseases can be found in Nature and that Nature also provides the efficient cures. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Radogna F.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer
Oncogene | Year: 2015

A limiting factor in the therapeutic outcome of children with high-risk neuroblastoma is the intrinsic and acquired resistance to common chemotherapeutic treatments. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which the hemisynthetic cardiac glycoside UNBS1450 overcomes this limitation and induces differential cell death modalities in both neuroblastic and stromal neuroblastoma through stimulation of a cell-type-specific autophagic response eventually leading to apoptosis or necroptosis. In neuroblastic SH-SY5Y cells, we observed a time-dependent production of reactive oxygen species that affects lysosomal integrity inducing lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 degradation and cathepsin B and L activation. Subsequent mitochondrial membrane depolarization and accumulation of mitochondria in phagophores occurred after 8h of UNBS1450 treatment. Results were confirmed by mitochondrial mass analysis, electron microscopy and co-localization of mitochondria with GFP-LC3, suggesting the impaired clearance of damaged mitochondria. Thus, a stress-induced defective autophagic flux and the subsequent lack of clearance of damaged mitochondria sensitized SH-SY5Y cells to UNBS1450-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagy with small inhibitory RNAs against ATG5, ATG7 and Beclin-1 protected SH-SY5Y cells against the cytotoxic effect of UNBS1450 by inhibiting apoptosis. In contrast, autophagy progression towards the catabolic state was observed in stromal SK-N-AS cells: here reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation remained undetectable preserving intact lysosomes and engulfing damaged mitochondria after UNBS1450 treatment. Moreover, autophagy inhibition determined sensitization of SK-N-AS to apoptosis. We identified efficient mitophagy as the key mechanism leading to failure of activation of the apoptotic pathway that increased resistance of SK-N-AS to UNBS1450, triggering rather necroptosis at higher doses. Altogether we characterize here the differential modulation of ROS and mitophagy as a main determinant of neuroblastoma resistance with potential relevance for personalized anticancer therapeutic approaches.Oncogene advance online publication, 7 December 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.455. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited


Ghibelli L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Diederich M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer
Mitochondrion | Year: 2010

Bax is a pro-apoptotic protein allowing apoptosis to occur through the intrinsic, damage-induced pathway, and amplifying that one occurring via the extrinsic, receptor mediated pathway. Bax is present in viable cells and activated by pro-apoptotic stimuli. Activation implies structural changes, consisting of exposure of the N terminus and hydrophobic domains; changes in localization, consisting in migration from cytosol to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum membranes; changes in the aggregation status, from monomer to dimer and multimer. Bax has multiple critical domains, namely the N terminus exposed after activation; two hydrophobic stretches exposed for membrane anchorage; two reactive cysteines allowing multimerization; the BH3 domain for interactions with the Bcl-2 family members; alpha helix 1 for t-Bid interaction. Bax has also multiple functions: it releases different mitochondrial factors such as cytochrome c, SMAC/diablo; it regulates mitochondrial fission, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore; it promotes Ca2+ leakage through ER membrane. Altogether, Bax activation is a complex multi-step phenomenon. Here, we analyze these events as logically separable or alternative steps, attempting to assess their role, timing and reciprocal relation. © 2010 Mitochondria Research Society.


Radogna F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Diederich M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Ghibelli L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Melatonin is a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland that regulates sleep and circadian functions. Melatonin also regulates inflammatory and immune processes acting as both an activator and inhibitor of these responses. Melatonin demonstrates endocrine, but also paracrine and autocrine effects in the leukocyte compartment: on one side, leukocytes respond to melatonin in a circadian fashion; on the other side, leukocytes are able to synthesize melatonin by themselves. With its endocrine and paracrine effects, melatonin differentially modulates pro-inflammatory enzymes, controls production of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and leukotrienes and regulates the lifespan of leukocytes by interfering with apoptotic processes. Moreover, its potent antioxidant ability allows scavenging of oxidative stress in the inflamed tissues. The interesting timing of pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, such as those affecting lipoxygenase activity, suggests that melatonin might promote early phases of inflammation on one hand and contribute to its attenuation on the other hand, in order to avoid complications of chronic inflammation. This review aims at giving a comprehensive overview of the various inflammatory pathways regulated by this pleiotropic hormone. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Schumacher M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Kelkel M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Dicato M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer | Diederich M.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Et Cellulaire Du Cancer
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2011

Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases in the world. Although advances in the field of chemo-preventive and therapeutic medicine have been made regularly over the last ten years, the search for novel anticancer treatments continues. In this field, the marine environment, with its rich variety of organisms, is a largely untapped source of novel compounds with potent antitumor activity. Although many reviews of marine anticancer compounds have been published, we focus here on selected marine compounds that act on the six hallmarks of cancer presented namely self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to anti-growth signals, evasion of apoptosis, limitless replication, sustained angiogenesis and tissue invasion and metastasis. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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