Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene

Paris, France

Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene

Paris, France
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Fillaux J.,Service de Parasitologie Mycologie | Fillaux J.,University Paul Sabatier | Bremont F.,Service de Pneumologie Allergologie | Cassaing S.,Service de Parasitologie Mycologie | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) sensitization and persistent carriage are deleterious to lung function, but no consensus has been reached defining these medical entities. This work aimed to identify possible predictive factors for patients who become sensitized to Af, compared with a control group of non-sensitized Af carriers. METHODS: Between 1995 and 2007, 117 pediatric patients were evaluated. Demographic data, CFTR gene mutations, body mass index and FEV1 were recorded. The presence of Af in sputum, the levels of Af-precipitin, total IgE (t-IgE) and specific IgE to Af (Af-IgE) were determined. Patients were divided into 2 groups: (1) "sensitization": level of Af-IgE > 0.35 IU/mL with t-IgE level < 500 IU/mL and (2) "persistent or transient carriage": Af-IgE level ≤ 0.35 IU/mL with either an Af transient or persistent positive culture. A survival analysis was performed with the appearance of Af-IgE in serum as an outcome variable. RESULTS: Severe mutation (hazard ratio = 3.2), FEV1 baseline over 70% of theoretical value (hazard ratio = 4.9), absence of Pa colonization, catalase activity and previous azithromycin administration (hazard ratio = 9.8, 4.1 and 1.9, respectively) were predictive factors for sensitization. We propose a timeline of the biological events and a tree diagram for risk calculation. CONCLUSIONS: Two profiles of cystic fibrosis patients can be envisaged: (1) patients with nonsevere mutation but low FEV1 baselines are becoming colonized with Af or (2) patients with high FEV1 baselines who present with severe mutation are more susceptible to the Af sensitization and then to the presentation of an allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis event. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Poissy J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Poissy J.,Service University Of Maladies Infectieuses Et Tropicales | Aubry A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Aubry A.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene | And 8 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

The prevalence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), defined as TB that is resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides, is rising worldwide. The extent of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to fluoroquinolones depends on the mutation in the DNA gyrase, the only target of fluoroquinolones. The MIC of moxifloxacin, the most active fluoroquinolone against M. tuberculosis, may be lower than its peak serum level for some ofloxacin-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, if the MIC of moxifloxacin is lower than its peak serum level, it may be effective against XDR-TB. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of moxifloxacin in treating ofloxacin-resistant TB. We selected isogenic fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in vivo. We infected Swiss mice with either wild-type H37Rv or one of three mutant strains with different MICs that are commonly seen in clinical practice. The MICs of the mutant strains ranged from below to above the peak moxifloxacin level seen in humans (3 μg/ml). Each mouse was treated with one of four moxifloxacin doses for 1 month. Moxifloxacin was effective against mutant strain GyrB D500N, with the lowest MIC (0.5 μg/ml), when the standard dose was doubled. Moxifloxacin reduced mortality in mice infected with mutant strain GyrA A90V with an intermediate MIC (2 μg/ml). However, it had no impact on the mutant strain GyrA D94G with the highest MIC (4 μg/ml). Our study underscores current WHO recommendations to use moxifloxacin when there is resistance to early-generation fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin, restricting this recommendation to strains with moxifloxacin MICs of less than or equal to 2 μg/ml. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Ycart B.,University Grenoble Alpes | Ycart B.,Laboratoire dExcellence TOUCAN Toulouse Cancer | Veziris N.,CNRS Immunology and Infectious Disease Center | Veziris N.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene | Veziris N.,Colorado State University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Estimation methods for mutation rates (or probabilities) in Luria-Delbrück fluctuation analysis usually assume that the final number of cells remains constant from one culture to another. We show that this leads to systematically underestimate the mutation rate. Two levels of information on final numbers are considered: either the coefficient of variation has been independently estimated, or the final number of cells in each culture is known. In both cases, unbiased estimation methods are proposed. Their statistical properties are assessed both theoretically and through Monte-Carlo simulation. As an application, the data from two well known fluctuation analysis studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reexamined. © 2014 Ycart, Veziris.

Pantel A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Petrella S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Veziris N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Veziris N.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene | And 10 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is emerging in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The main mechanism of FQ resistance is amino acid substitution within the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase, the sole FQ target in M. tuberculosis. However, substitutions in GyrB whose implication in FQ resistance is unknown are increasingly being reported. The present study clarified the role of four GyrB substitutions identified in M. tuberculosis clinical strains, two located in the QRDR (D500A and N538T) and two outside the QRDR (T539P and E540V), in FQ resistance. We measured FQ MICs and also DNA gyrase inhibition by FQs in order to unequivocally clarify the role of these mutations in FQ resistance. Wild-type GyrA, wild-type GyrB, and mutant GyrB subunits produced from engineered gyrB alleles by mutagenesis were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and used to reconstitute highly active gyrase complexes. MICs and DNA gyrase inhibition were determined for moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and enoxacin. All these substitutions are clearly implicated in FQ resistance, underlining the presence of a hot spot region housing most of the GyrB substitutions implicated in FQ resistance (residues NTE, 538 to 540). These findings help us to refine the definition of GyrB QRDR, which is extended to positions 500 to 540. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Veziris N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Veziris N.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene | Veziris N.,Center National Of Reference Des Mycobacteries Et Of La Resistance Des Mycobacteries | Ibrahim M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Rationale: The sterilizing activity of the regimen used to treat multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) has not been studied in a mouse model. Objective and Methods: Swiss mice were intravenously inoculated with 6 log10 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) strain H37Rv, treated with second-line drug combinations with or without the diarylquinoline TMC207, and then followed without treatment for 3 more months to determine relapse rates (modified Cornell model). Measurements: Bactericidal efficacy was assessed by quantitative lung colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Sterilizing efficacy was assessed by measuring bacteriological relapse rates 3 months after the end of treatment. Main Results: The relapse rate observed after 12 months treatment with the WHO recommended MDR TB regimen (amikacin, ethionamide, pyrazinamide and moxifloxacin) was equivalent to the relapse rate observed after 6 months treatment with the recommended drug susceptible TB regimen (rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide). When TMC207 was added to this MDR TB regimen, the treatment duration needed to reach the same relapse rate dropped to 6 months. A similar relapse rate was also obtained with a 6-month completely oral regimen including TMC207, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide but excluding both amikacin and ethionamide. Conclusions: In this murine model the duration of the WHO MDR TB treatment could be reduced to 12 months instead of the recommended 18-24 months. The inclusion of TMC207 in the WHO MDR TB treatment regimen has the potential to further shorten the treatment duration and at the same time to simplify treatment by eliminating the need to include an injectable aminoglycoside. © 2011 Veziris et al.

Truffot-Pernot C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Veziris N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Veziris N.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires | Year: 2011

This review describes current developments for the bacteriological diagnosis of active tuberculosis. It deals mainly with molecular methods, describing their performance and how they can be integrated into more traditional diagnostic approaches. At present, microscopic examination and culture are still essential for the diagnosis of TB and to guide therapeutic decisions. Nucleic acid amplification and line probe assays speed up the identification and susceptibility testing of mycobacteria in AFB smear positive specimens or in culture. They are also efficient for comparison of M. tuberculosis strains with each other (genotyping). On the other hand, at present, molecular tests are not applicable for diagnosis in smear negative specimens and even less so for diagnosis of culture-negative tuberculosis. The use of serology for antibody/antigen detection is not useful and it is not appropriate to assays based on the release of interferon-γ release as they are currently available. Notable progress has been made but more sensitive diagnostic tests for TB are still urgently needed. © 2011 SPLF.

Fournier S.,Central Infection Control Team | Lepainteur M.,Central Infection Control Team | Kassis-Chikhani N.,Infection Control Unit | Huang M.,Central Infection Control Team | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Travel Medicine | Year: 2012

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris launched a specific strategy to survey and control the spread of emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria such as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteria (CPE). Among the 63 CPE events that occurred between 2004 and 2011, 87% involved patients with a link with cross-border exchanges, justifying the recommendation to screen and isolate such patients. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

Fillion A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Aubry A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Aubry A.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene | Brossier F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 6 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

It has been shown previously that fluoroquinolone resistance (defined by resistance to at least 2 mg/liter ofloxacin) has a different impact on moxifloxacin monotherapy depending on the mutation in the sole fluoroquinolone target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, i.e., DNA gyrase. Since tuberculosis treatment relies on multidrug therapy, we wished to determine the impact of fluoroquinolone resistance on the bactericidal and sterilizing activity of a second-line antituberculous regimen containing moxifloxacin. A total of 280 mice were inoculated with the wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain or one of 3 isogenic fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant strains with increasing moxifloxacin resistance (the GyrB D500N, GyrA A90V, and GyrA D94G strains) and then treated for 6 months with a second-line regimen containing moxifloxacin, pyrazinamide, and ethionamide supplemented with amikacin during the first 2 months. Mice were sacrificed during treatment for measurement of bactericidal activity and 3 months after treatment completion for measurement of relapse rates (sterilizing activity). The CFU counts decreased faster in mice inoculated with the wild type than in mice inoculated with the mutant strains. The relapse rate after treatment completion was different among mice inoculated with mutant strains in relation to the drug resistance level: wild type, 0%; GyrB D500N strain, 33%; GyrA A90V strain, 50%; and GyrA D94G strain, 86%. The relapse rate observed with the GyrB D500N strain was the only one not statistically different from that observed with the wild-type strain. We demonstrated that the impact on sterilizing activity of the most active second-line drug regimen containing moxifloxacin depends on the MIC of moxifloxacin. We suggest that the precise level of moxifloxacin resistance be determined for all strains resistant to 2 mg/liter ofloxacin. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Veziris N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Veziris N.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene | Truffot C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Mainardi J.-L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

Although beta-lactam antibiotics are not considered as antituberculous drugs, it has been recently shown that the combination of carbapenems and clavulanate is bactericidal in vitro. We evaluated in a murine model of tuberculosis the activity of carbapenems alone and combined with clavulanate against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Swiss mice infected intravenously with 3 × 10 5 M. tuberculosis H37Rv were treated for 4 weeks with clavulanate alone or imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem alone or combined with clavulanate, whereas a positive control group was treated with isoniazid, and a negative control group was held without treatment. The combination of imipenem or meropenem plus clavulanate significantly improved survival. Among groups of mice with 100% survival, only isoniazid reduced lung CFU counts; the carbapenem-clavulanate combinations did not prevent bacterial growth. Although less active than isoniazid, the combinations of imipenem or meropenem plus clavulanate improved the survival of mice infected with M. tuberculosis and should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Garrec H.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Garrec H.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene | Drieux-Rouzet L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Drieux-Rouzet L.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Hygiene | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

The detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) bacteria is of importance for infection control and epidemiological surveillance. We aimed to compare phenotypic methods available in the routine laboratory and to evaluate two-step strategies using these methods for the detection of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae. Two methods used for routine susceptibility testing (Vitek2 and disk diffusion methods) and seven methods designed for the detection of ESBL production (ESBL Etests, combination disks, double-disk synergy [DDS] methods on Mueller-Hinton [MH] agar and cloxacillin-containing MH agar, and the Cica-Beta test) were tested against 107 strains of Enterobacteriaceae not susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. All strains were screened for the presence of acquired ESBL-encoding genes by PCR, and the PCR result was considered the gold standard for evaluation of the other test methods. Among the 107 strains, 52 (49%) were ESBL positive. With Vitek2, sensitivities were the highest when using extended cards (73% to 79%), but 25% to 31% of the strains yielded indeterminate results. For the disk diffusion method, sensitivities were the highest (96%) when testing at least cefotaxime, cefepime, and a third compound (ceftazidime, cefpodoxime, or aztreonam). For the specific methods, specificities ranged from 62% (ceftazidime ESBL Etest) to 100% (DDS using a disk spacing of 20 mm). When a method designed for ESBL detection was used on strains considered ESBL negative or with an indeterminate result by a first routine susceptibility method, sensitivities reached 100% for a majority of combinations. In conclusion, two-step strategies using phenotypic methods available in most clinical laboratories may reach a sensitivity of 100% for ESBL detection among a large panel of species, including AmpC producers, providing a sensible choice of tests. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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