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Coscolla M.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Coscolla M.,University of Basel | Coscolla M.,Centro Superior Of Investigacion En Salud Publica | Lewin A.,Robert Koch Institute | And 18 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by gram-positive bacteria known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). MTBC include several human-associated lineages and several variants adapted to domestic and, more rarely, wild animal species. We report an M. tuberculosis strain isolated from a wild chimpanzee in Côte d'Ivoire that was shown by comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses to belong to a new lineage of MTBC, closer to the human-associated lineage 6 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 2) than to the other classical animal-associated MTBC strains. These results show that the general view of the genetic diversity of MTBC is limited and support the possibility that other MTBC variants exist, particularly in wild mammals in Africa. Exploring this diversity is crucial to the understanding of the biology and evolutionary history of this widespread infectious disease.

Albrechtova K.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Papousek I.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | De Nys H.,Robert Koch Institute | De Nys H.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Antimicrobial resistance genes can be found in all ecosystems, including those where antibiotic selective pressure has never been exerted. We investigated resistance genes in a collection of faecal samples of wildlife (non-human primates, mice), people and domestic animals (dogs, cats) in Cô te d'Ivoire; in the chimpanzee research area of Taï National Park (TNP) and adjacent villages. Single bacteria isolates were collected from antibiotic-containing agar plates and subjected to molecular analysis to detect Enterobacteriaceae isolates with plasmid-mediated genes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). While the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the villages was 27% in people (n577) and 32% in dogs (n538), no ESBL-producer was found in wildlife of TNP (n575). PMQR genes, mainly represented by qnrS1, were also present in human-and dog-originating isolates from the villages (36% and 42% in people and dogs, respectively), but no qnrS has been found in the park. In TNP, different variants of qnrB were detected in Citrobacter freundii isolates originating non-human primates and mice. In conclusion, ESBL and PMQR genes frequently found in humans and domestic animals in the villages were rather exceptional in wildlife living in the protected area. Although people enter the park, the strict biosecurity levels they are obliged to follow probably impede transmission of bacteria between them and wildlife. © 2014 Albrechtova et al.

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