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Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Dabone C.,University of Montreal | Dabone C.,Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique | Delisle H.,University of Montreal | Receveur O.,University of Montreal
Global Health Promotion | Year: 2013

Objective: African school children's dietary habits are likely changing in the realm of the nutrition transition, particularly in urban areas, but data on their diet and on determinants are scanty. In order to design relevant interventions for this priority target group, the study aimed to assess food habits and their determinants in schoolchildren of Ouagadougou. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, fifth-grade schoolchildren filled during school hours a questionnaire to assess consumption frequency of 'healthy' foods (fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, legumes) and 'unhealthy' (superfluous) items (cake, cookies, candies, ice, soda) and underlying factors, using Green's PRECEDE model. Results: The study included 769 schoolchildren, mean age 11.7 ± 1.4 years, from eight public and four private schools. Consumption scores of unhealthy items were significantly higher than healthy foods (p = 0.001). During the week prior to the survey, 25% of children had eaten no fruit, 20% no meat, 20% no legumes, 17% no fish and 17% no vegetables. While less than 4% ate fruits or vegetables every day, 18.3% ate ice pop every day. Children eating cookies, cakes and candy every day were up to seven-fold those eating fruits, vegetables or legumes. Compared to public-school pupils, those from private schools consumed both healthy and unhealthy items more frequently (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively). Urban schoolchildren had significantly higher unhealthy food scores (p = 0.027) compared to peri-urban schools. Children's healthy and unhealthy food consumption was primarily explained by perceived decisional power and availability [facilitating factors] for both types of foods, and maternal reinforcement for healthy foods and peers' reinforcement for consumption of unhealthy items. Overall, facilitating factors rated higher for unhealthy than healthy foods. Conclusion: The study showed that city school children's eating behaviours are far from optimal. Nutrition interventions should be tailored to address the underlying factors in order to impact on behaviours, thereby preventing both dietary inadequacies and excess. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Dabone C.,University of Montreal | Dabone C.,Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique | Delisle H.F.,University of Montreal | Receveur O.,University of Montreal
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods. The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys) aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173). WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results: Mean age of the children (48% boys) was 11.5 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001) and vitamin A deficiency (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in public than private schools. Goitre was not detected. Overweight/obesity was low (2.3%) and affected significantly more children in private schools (p = 0.009) and younger children (7-9 y) (p < 0.05). Thinness and stunting were significantly higher in peri-urban compared to urban schools (p < 0.05 and p = 0.004 respectively). Almost 15% of the children presented at least two nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion: This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them. © 2011 Daboné et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Phan T.G.,Blood Systems Research Institute | Phan T.G.,University of California at San Francisco | Li L.,Blood Systems Research Institute | Li L.,University of California at San Francisco | And 8 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2012

Until 2011 the genus Gyrovirus in the family Circoviridae consisted of a single virus (Chicken anemia virus or CAV) causing a common immunosuppressive disease in chickens when a second gyrovirus (HGyV) was reported on the skin of 4% of healthy humans. HGyV is very closely related to a recently described chicken gyrovirus, AGV2, suggesting that they belong to the same viral species. During a viral metagenomic analysis of 100 human faeces from children with diarrhoea in Chile we identified multiple known human pathogens (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, noroviruses, parechoviruses and rotaviruses) and a novel gyrovirus species we named GyV3 sharing <63% similarity with other gyrovirus proteins with evidence of recombination with CAV in its UTR. Gyroviridae consensus PCR revealed a high prevalence of CAV DNA in diarrhoea and normal faeces from Chilean children and faeces of USA cats and dogs, which may reflect consumption of CAV-infected/vaccinated chickens. Whether GyV3 can infect humans and/or chickens requires further studies. © 2012 SGM. Source

Sanou D.,Laval University | Sanou D.,Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique | Turgeon-O'Brien H.,Laval University | Desrosiers T.,Laval University
Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine the impact of an intervention that combined an increase in dietary and bioavailable iron intakes and an improvement in hygiene behaviors on the iron status of preschool children from Burkina Faso. Methods: Thirty-three orphans and vulnerable children from 11 families who were 1-6 y old, were non-anemic, or had mild to moderate anemia were enrolled in an 18-wk trial. Using the probability approach for planning diets in an assisted-living facility, bioavailable iron intake was increased from 0.4 to 0.9 mg/d by increasing the amounts of meat and citrus fruits and by adding iron-rich condiments to the diet, for an estimated cost of U.S. $0.59/mo. Hygiene behaviors were modified by implementing hand-washing before meals and by the use of individual plates for meals. Iron status indicators were measured twice and means at enrollment and after intervention were compared. Results: After intervention, hemoglobin concentration increased from 98.7 to 103.8 g/L (P = 0.006). There was a decrease in total iron binding capacity (107 to 91 μmol/L, P = 0.05) and a marginal increase in transferrin saturation (13% to 17%, P = 0.06). Significant improvement was not observed for serum ferritin concentration or prevalence of depleted iron stores, likely due to the confounding effect of infection. Anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were decreased from 64% to 30% and from 61% to 30%, respectively. Conclusion: Dietary modification associated with adequate hygiene behaviors could be a relevant strategy to control iron deficiency and anemia in areas where infection is a major health problem. Crown Copyright © 2010. Source

Mallek Z.,Center Veterinaire Of Recherche | Mallek Z.,University of Sfax | Fendri I.,University of Sfax | Khannous L.,University of Sfax | And 4 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2012

Background: Increasing consumer demand for healthier food products has led to the development of governmental policies regarding health claims in many developed countries. In this context, contamination of poultry by food-borne pathogens is considered one of the major problems facing the progress of the poultry industry in Tunisia. Result: Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to chicken feed at concentrations 0,5% or 1% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce total flora in chickens and its effects on performance of the production. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal form)that was either a basal diet or a' zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 0,5% or 1%). It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p < 0,05) reduced total flora levels, as compared to the control, on the chicken body. In addition, it was found that zeolite treatment had a positive effect on performance production and organoleptic parameters that were measured and mainly on the increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid. Conclusion: This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control total flora at the broiler farm and to increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid on the chicken body. © 2012 Mallek et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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