Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
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Fendri I.,University of Sfax | Khannous L.,University of Sfax | Mallek Z.,Center Veterinaire Of Recherche | Traore A.I.,Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique | And 2 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2012

Background: The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result: Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a zeolite diet (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p<0.05) effect on some parameters that were measured like egg height and eggshell strength. While dietary zeolite supplementation tended to/or has no significant effects on total egg, eggshell, yolk and albumen weights. It was found also that zeolite mainly increases level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg. Conclusion: This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg. © 2012 Fendri et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sina H.,University Abomey Calavi | Ahoyo T.A.,University Abomey Calavi | Moussaoui W.,Institute Of Bacteriologie | Keller D.,Institute Of Bacteriologie | And 6 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2013

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic commensal bacterium that mostly colonizes the skin and soft tissues. The pathogenicity of S. aureus is due to both its ability to resist antibiotics, and the production of toxins. Here, we characterize a group of genes responsible for toxin production and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections. Results: A total of 136 S. aureus strains were collected from five different types of infection: furuncles, pyomyositis, abscesses, Buruli ulcers, and osteomyelitis, from hospital admissions and out-patients in Benin. All strains were resistant to benzyl penicillin, while 25% were resistant to methicillin, and all showed sensitivity to vancomycin. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was the most commonly produced virulence factor (70%), followed by staphylococcal enterotoxin B (44%). Exfoliative toxin B was produced by 1.3% of the strains, and was only found in isolates from Buruli ulcers. The tsst-1, sec, and seh genes were rarely detected (≤1%). Conclusions: This study provides new insight into the prevalence of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in S. aureus strains responsible for skin, soft tissue, and bone infections. Our results showed that PVL was strongly associated with pyomyositis and osteomyelitis, and that there is a high prevalence of PVL-MRSA skin infections in Benin. © 2013 Sina et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mallek Z.,Center Veterinaire Of Recherche | Mallek Z.,University of Sfax | Fendri I.,University of Sfax | Khannous L.,University of Sfax | And 4 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2012

Background: Increasing consumer demand for healthier food products has led to the development of governmental policies regarding health claims in many developed countries. In this context, contamination of poultry by food-borne pathogens is considered one of the major problems facing the progress of the poultry industry in Tunisia. Result: Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to chicken feed at concentrations 0,5% or 1% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce total flora in chickens and its effects on performance of the production. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal form)that was either a basal diet or a' zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 0,5% or 1%). It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p < 0,05) reduced total flora levels, as compared to the control, on the chicken body. In addition, it was found that zeolite treatment had a positive effect on performance production and organoleptic parameters that were measured and mainly on the increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid. Conclusion: This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control total flora at the broiler farm and to increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid on the chicken body. © 2012 Mallek et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Phan T.G.,Blood Systems Research Institute | Phan T.G.,University of California at San Francisco | Li L.,Blood Systems Research Institute | Li L.,University of California at San Francisco | And 8 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2012

Until 2011 the genus Gyrovirus in the family Circoviridae consisted of a single virus (Chicken anemia virus or CAV) causing a common immunosuppressive disease in chickens when a second gyrovirus (HGyV) was reported on the skin of 4% of healthy humans. HGyV is very closely related to a recently described chicken gyrovirus, AGV2, suggesting that they belong to the same viral species. During a viral metagenomic analysis of 100 human faeces from children with diarrhoea in Chile we identified multiple known human pathogens (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, noroviruses, parechoviruses and rotaviruses) and a novel gyrovirus species we named GyV3 sharing <63% similarity with other gyrovirus proteins with evidence of recombination with CAV in its UTR. Gyroviridae consensus PCR revealed a high prevalence of CAV DNA in diarrhoea and normal faeces from Chilean children and faeces of USA cats and dogs, which may reflect consumption of CAV-infected/vaccinated chickens. Whether GyV3 can infect humans and/or chickens requires further studies. © 2012 SGM.

Essoh C.,University Paris - Sud | Essoh C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Blouin Y.,University Paris - Sud | Blouin Y.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Phage therapy may become a complement to antibiotics in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. To design efficient therapeutic cocktails, the genetic diversity of the species and the spectrum of susceptibility to bacteriophages must be investigated. Bacterial strains showing high levels of phage resistance need to be identified in order to decipher the underlying mechanisms. Here we have selected genetically diverse P. aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients and tested their susceptibility to a large collection of phages. Based on plaque morphology and restriction profiles, six different phages were purified from "pyophage", a commercial cocktail directed against five different bacterial species, including P. aeruginosa. Characterization of these phages by electron microscopy and sequencing of genome fragments showed that they belong to 4 different genera. Among 47 P. aeruginosa strains, 13 were not lysed by any of the isolated phages individually or by pyophage. We isolated two new phages that could lyse some of these strains, and their genomes were sequenced. The presence/absence of a CRISPR-Cas system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Crisper associated genes) was investigated to evaluate the role of the system in phage resistance. Altogether, the results show that some P. aeruginosa strains cannot support the growth of any of the tested phages belonging to 5 different genera, and suggest that the CRISPR-Cas system is not a major defence mechanism against these lytic phages. © 2013 Essoh et al.

PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, University of Ouagadougou, Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique, CDC Foundation and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013.Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF tested at national reference laboratories, and case fatality ratios (CFR).During 2011-2013, 1,528 pneumococcal meningitis cases were reported. Average annual adjusted incidence rates were 26.9 (<1 year), 5.4 (1-4 years), 7.2 (5-14 years), and 3.0 (15 years). Overall CFR was 23% and highest among children aged <1 year (32%) and adults 30 years (30%). Of 1,528 cases, 1,036 (68%) were serotyped: 71% were PCV13-associated serotypes, 14% were non-PCV13-associated serotypes, and 15% were non-typeable by PCR. Serotypes 1 (45%) and 12F/12A/12B/44/46 (8%) were most common. Among children aged <1 year, serotypes 5 (15%), 6A/6B (13%) and 1 (12%) predominated.In Burkina Faso, the highest morbidity and mortality due to pneumococcal meningitis occurred among children aged <1 year. The majority of cases were due to PCV13-associated serotypes; introduction of PCV13 should substantially decrease this burden.

Sanou D.,Laval University | Sanou D.,Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique | Turgeon-O'Brien H.,Laval University | Desrosiers T.,Laval University
Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine the impact of an intervention that combined an increase in dietary and bioavailable iron intakes and an improvement in hygiene behaviors on the iron status of preschool children from Burkina Faso. Methods: Thirty-three orphans and vulnerable children from 11 families who were 1-6 y old, were non-anemic, or had mild to moderate anemia were enrolled in an 18-wk trial. Using the probability approach for planning diets in an assisted-living facility, bioavailable iron intake was increased from 0.4 to 0.9 mg/d by increasing the amounts of meat and citrus fruits and by adding iron-rich condiments to the diet, for an estimated cost of U.S. $0.59/mo. Hygiene behaviors were modified by implementing hand-washing before meals and by the use of individual plates for meals. Iron status indicators were measured twice and means at enrollment and after intervention were compared. Results: After intervention, hemoglobin concentration increased from 98.7 to 103.8 g/L (P = 0.006). There was a decrease in total iron binding capacity (107 to 91 μmol/L, P = 0.05) and a marginal increase in transferrin saturation (13% to 17%, P = 0.06). Significant improvement was not observed for serum ferritin concentration or prevalence of depleted iron stores, likely due to the confounding effect of infection. Anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were decreased from 64% to 30% and from 61% to 30%, respectively. Conclusion: Dietary modification associated with adequate hygiene behaviors could be a relevant strategy to control iron deficiency and anemia in areas where infection is a major health problem. Crown Copyright © 2010.

Laokri S.,Free University of Colombia | Weil O.,HLSP Institute | Drabo K.M.,Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique | Kafando B.,Direction regionale de la Sante du Plateau Central | Dujardin B.,Free University of Colombia
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013

In theory, the removal of user fees puts health services within reach of everyone, including the very poor. When Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis, the intention was to provide free tuberculosis care. In 2007-2008, interviews were used to collect information from 242 smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled in the national tuberculosis control programme in six rural districts. The median direct costs associated with tuberculosis were estimated at 101 United States dollars (US$) per patient. These costs represented 23% of the mean annual income of a patient's household. During the course of their care, three quarters of the interviewed patients apparently faced "catastrophic" health expenditure. Inadequacies in the health system and policies appeared to be responsible for nearly half of the direct costs (US$ 45 per patient). Although the households of patients developed coping strategies, these had far-reaching, adverse effects on the quality of lives of the households' members and the socioeconomic stability of the households. Each tuberculosis patient lost a median of 45 days of work as a result of the illness. For a population living on or below the poverty line, every failure in health-care delivery increases the risk of "catastrophic" health expenditure, exacerbates socioeconomic inequalities, and reduces the probability of adequate treatment and cure. In Burkina Faso, a policy of "free" care for tuberculosis patients has not met with complete success. These observations should help define post-2015 global strategies for tuberculosis care, prevention and control.

Dabone C.,University of Montréal | Dabone C.,Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique | Delisle H.F.,University of Montréal | Receveur O.,University of Montréal
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods. The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys) aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173). WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results: Mean age of the children (48% boys) was 11.5 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001) and vitamin A deficiency (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in public than private schools. Goitre was not detected. Overweight/obesity was low (2.3%) and affected significantly more children in private schools (p = 0.009) and younger children (7-9 y) (p < 0.05). Thinness and stunting were significantly higher in peri-urban compared to urban schools (p < 0.05 and p = 0.004 respectively). Almost 15% of the children presented at least two nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion: This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them. © 2011 Daboné et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | Aix - Marseille University and Laboratoire National Of Sante Publique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2016

Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, occur in four divergent mitochondrial clades (A, B, C and D), each having particular geographical distributions. Recent studies suggest that head lice, as is the case of body lice, can act as a vector for louse-borne diseases. Therefore, understanding the genetic diversity of lice worldwide is of critical importance to our understanding of the risk of louse-borne diseases.Here, we report the results of the first molecular screening of pygmies head lice in the Republic of Congo for seven pathogens and an analysis of lice mitochondrial clades. We developed two duplex clade-specific real-time PCRs and identified three major mitochondrial clades: A, C, and D indicating high diversity among the head lice studied. We identified the presence of a dangerous human pathogen, Borrelia recurrentis, the causative agent of relapsing fever, in ten clade A head lice, which was not reported in the Republic of Congo, and B. theileri in one head louse. The results also show widespread infection among head lice with several species of Acinetobacter. A. junii was the most prevalent, followed by A. ursingii, A. baumannii, A. johnsonii, A. schindleri, A. lwoffii, A. nosocomialis and A. towneri.Our study is the first to show the presence of B. recurrentis in African pygmies head lice in the Republic of Congo. This study is also the first to report the presence of DNAs of B. theileri and several species of Acinetobacter in human head lice. Further studies are needed to determine whether the head lice can transmit these pathogenic bacteria from person to another.

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