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Yong M.,BASF | Blettner M.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Emrich K.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Nasterlack M.,BASF | And 3 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health

Objective Human evidence of carcinogenicity concerning shift work is inconsistent. This industry-based cohort study aimed to examine the relationship between working in a rotating shift and can cer incidence. Methods The cohort consisted of male production workers (12 609 shift and 15 219 day), employed in a large chemical industry for at least one year between 1995-2005, and residing in the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Incident cancer cases from 2000-2009 were identified through record linkage with the cancer registry of Rhineland-Palatinate. Information on exposure to shift work and potential confounders, including age, smoking status, job level, and employment duration, was extracted from the personnel and health records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) adjusted for potential confounders. Results Between 2000-2009, 518 and 555 cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) occurred among shift and day work employees, respectively. Compared to "never shift work", shift workers experienced an increased risk of cancers neither at all-sites (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21) nor for prostate cancer in particular (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.71-1.21). The risks of leukemia and esophagus cancer were increased if smoking was not taken into account, albeit based on small numbers. However, adjusting for smoking changed the HR and the risk diminished. Conclusions Our analyses do not provide evidence for a carcinogenic effect of the shift system under study. Source

Crunelle C.L.,University of Antwerp | Cappelle D.,University of Antwerp | Covaci A.,University of Antwerp | van Nuijs A.L.N.,University of Antwerp | And 7 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Background: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor alcohol metabolite that accumulates in hair and is proposed as a stable marker for the detection of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption above a cut-off level of 30. pg/mg hair. A correlation between drinking behavior and EtG hair concentrations is observed, but large variability exists. Aims: To investigate the correlation between alcohol consumption and hair EtG concentrations in alcohol dependent patients, and the effect of gender differences as a factor for the variability on this correlation. Methods: EtG was measured by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in the hairs (first 3. cm) of 36 alcohol dependent patients (25 males/11 females) starting and alcohol detoxification program. Factors that possibly influence EtG content in hair (except age and gender) were excluded. Detailed retrospective alcohol consumption was obtained over the last 3 months using the Timeline Follow Back interview. Results: Median total alcohol consumption over 3 months was 13,050. g pure alcohol (range 60-650. g/day). Hair EtG concentrations varied between 32 and 662. pg/mg. There was a statistically significant linear and positive correlation between hair EtG and amounts of alcohol consumed (Pearson r= 0.83; p<. 0.001), in both males (Pearson r= 0.83; p<. 0.001) and females (Pearson r= 0.76; p= 0.007). Conclusions: There is a linear correlation, with no significant effect of gender, between hair EtG concentrations and amounts of alcohol consumed in alcohol-dependent individuals. Analysis of EtG in hair can be applied to estimate retrospective alcohol consumption in both male and female alcohol dependent subjects using the same cut-off. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Cappelle D.,University of Antwerp | Yegles M.,Laboratoire National Of Sante | Neels H.,University of Antwerp | Neels H.,Laboratory for TDM and Toxicology | And 5 more authors.
Forensic Toxicology

Nails can stably accumulate substances for long periods of time, thus providing retrospective information regarding drugs of abuse and pharmaceutical use. Nails have several advantages over the conventional matrices, such as blood and urine, including a longer detection window (months to years), non-invasive sample collection, and easy storage and transport. These aspects make nails a very interesting matrix for forensic and clinical toxicology. Because of the low concentrations of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals present in nails and the complexity of the keratinized matrix, analytical methods need to be more sensitive, and sample preparation is crucial. This review summarizes the literature regarding the detection and quantification of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in nails, as well as the employed pre-analytical and analytical techniques. Additionally, the applications of nail analysis are reviewed. Finally, an overview of the challenges of nail analysis is provided, and guidelines for future research are proposed. © 2014, Japanese Association of Forensic Toxicology and Springer Japan. Source

Wurst F.M.,Paracelsus Medical University | Wurst F.M.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Thon N.,Paracelsus Medical University | Yegles M.,Laboratoire National Of Sante | And 3 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research

Background: Alcohol-related disorders are common, expensive in their course, and often underdiagnosed. To facilitate early diagnosis and therapy of alcohol-related disorders and to prevent later complications, questionnaires and biomarkers are useful. Methods: Indirect state markers like gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, mean corpuscular volume, and carbohydrate deficient transferrin are influenced by age, gender, various substances, and nonalcohol-related illnesses, and do not cover the entire timeline for alcohol consumption. Ethanol (EtOH) metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol, and fatty acid ethyl esters have gained enormous interest in the last decades as they are detectable after EtOH intake. Results: For each biomarker, pharmacological characteristics, detection methods in different body tissues, sensitivity/specificity values, cutoff values, time frames of detection, and general limitations are presented. Another focus of the review is the use of the markers in special clinical and forensic samples. Conclusions: Depending on the biological material used for analysis, ethanol metabolites can be applied in different settings such as assessment of alcohol intake, screening, prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of alcohol use disorders. © 2015 Research Society on Alcoholism. Source

Mossong J.,Laboratoire National Of Sante
Bulletin de la Société des sciences médicales du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

The aim of our study was to assess the diagnostic performance of various serological markers and scores for predicting significant fibrosis retrospectively in a population of patients referring to our hospital for liver biopsy and chronic hepatitis C. Stored serum obtained from 186 patients were tested for a number of biological markers putatively associated with liver fibrosis. Fibrotest and Forns scores were compared with liver fibrosis pathology scored according to the METAVIR system by multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of significant fibrosis was 44%. Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were most correlated with METAVIR staging, followed by platelet counts and alpha2-macroglobulin. The negative predictive value was 77% and 83% and the positive predictive value was 100% and 84% for the Forns score and the Fibrotest, respectively. In multivariate analysis AST, GGT and alpha2-macroglobulin had independent predictive power. The accuracy of serological markers in predicting significant fibrosis is limited, because approximately two thirds of patients lie into an indeterminate "grey zone". Serological markers might be useful for patients reluctant to undergo liver biopsy but current predictive scoring systems are too inaccurate to replace biopsies in a routine manner. Source

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