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Debourgogne A.,Laboratoire Hospitalier Et University Of Parasitologie Mycologie | Debourgogne A.,Nancy University Hospital Center | Iriart X.,Laboratoire Hospitalier Et University Of Parasitologie Mycologie | Iriart X.,University Paul Sabatier | And 7 more authors.
Medical Mycology | Year: 2011

Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic systemic mycosis caused by members of the encapsulated yeast genus Cryptococcus. The aetiological agents of the disease are classified into two species, i.e., Cryptococcus neoformans (serotypes A, D, and AD) affecting mainly immunocompromised patients and Cryptococcus gattii (serotypes B and C) usually found in immunocompetent individuals. Limited data exist on Cryptococcus infections in French Guiana, the department with the highest HIV incidence in the French territories. A retrospective study between January 1998 and December 2008 was performed on all patients with cryptococcosis, admitted to hospitals in French Guiana. Epidemiological data, clinical forms and diagnosis methods were studied. Of the 43 patients with cryptococcosis, 29 (67.4%) had HIV infections. Among the HIV-negative patients, two (4.7%) presented identified risk factors for cryptococcosis. This study has shown a high frequency of patients with HTLV-1 positive serology (12.1%). C. neoformans var. grubii was recovered with a frequency of 77.3% and was mainly isolated from patients with AIDS (13/17), whereas C. gattii (22.7%) was strictly isolated from HIV-negative patients with no apparent risk factors. Despite a socio-economic environment closer to western countries, the overall epidemiology of cryptococcosis in French Guiana is more similar to that found in South America, particularly with reference to the serotypes of the causative yeasts. Indeed, French Guiana presents an especially high proportion of cases caused by C. gattii, which may explain the significant incidence of this disease, particularly in HIV-negative and immunocompetent patients. © 2011 ISHAM. Source

Moquet O.,Laboratoire Hospitalier Et University Of Parasitologie Mycologie | Blanchet D.,Laboratoire Hospitalier Et University Of Parasitologie Mycologie | Simon S.,Laboratoire Hospitalier Et University Of Parasitologie Mycologie | Veron V.,Laboratoire Hospitalier Et University Of Parasitologie Mycologie | And 2 more authors.
Mycopathologia | Year: 2012

We carried out a soil sampling survey in September 2008 in central Cayenne, French Guiana, using molecular methods to assess the presence of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Four of the 31 samples collected (12. 9 %) tested positive by PCR, with confirmation of the result by DNA sequencing. H. capsulatum is therefore present in urban environments in French Guiana. These results provide additional support for the primary prophylaxis of AIDS-related histoplasmosis in French Guiana. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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