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Saint-Sauveur-en-Rue, France

This article aims to formalizing the evolving of definitions of the swimmer since 1960. This paper develops the thought that this change depend from periods and institutions. The institution defines the scope of the swimmer through coaching and life guard staff. In fact the shaping of swimmer involves the swimming learning organization. Based on analyses of institutional instructions in physical education and Ministry of Sport we explain the link between swimmer definitions and didactic according with the institution underlying. Thus there are many definitions different tests and degrees. Recently they reflect the meeting between different swimming organizations. Thereby, the actually definition of the swimmer since similar. To sum up, after a technical method, the swimmer is considered in a global attitude who attests the practical cultural background. This change also stressed strongly the pedagogic and didactic evolutions. © De Boeck Supérieur. Tous droits réservés pour tous pays.

Labiadh L.,Laboratoire GEPECS | Ramanantsoa M.-M.,Laboratoire GEPECS | Golomer E.,Laboratoire GEPECS
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2012

The present study examined the development of bimanual interaction during the imitation of a live demonstration. To this end, children of five different age groups observed an adult model performing in an object manipulation task consisting to open a box with one hand, taking out an object with the other hand, and closing the box again, before they were asked to imitate this motor task under different imitation conditions. The children's responses were videotaped, coded in dichotomous data, and then transformed in percentage scores. The main results showed that all children were able to imitate/attain the goal of the task. However, differences were observed for the different imitation conditions, which were also reflected in some age effects, while hand dominance was a strong constraint on imitation. Also, practice did not seem to increase the likelihood of model imitation. These findings confirm that imitation is a reconstruction mechanism hierarchically organized. © 2012.

Labiadh L.,Laboratoire GEPECS | Ramanantsoa M.-M.,Laboratoire GEPECS | Golomer E.,Laboratoire GEPECS
Human Movement Science | Year: 2013

Imitation is commonly considered as a hierarchical process. The current study explored the reproduction of a multi-task course in deferred imitation. Eighty-five children between 3.5 and 7.5 years old were divided into five groups and instructed to watch a live human adult demonstrator who performed simple successive actions, such as walking, jumping, grasping, carrying objects from one location to another through six sessions. After a five-minute delay, the children were individually instructed to reproduce the course. Their responses were videotaped and coded in dichotomous data at two hierarchical levels, namely goals and their spatial location. The main findings showed no improvement in the replication of goals due either to age or trials. However, there was an improvement in the integration of the goals' spatial location over trials. This signifies that imitation is an active reconstruction mechanism hierarchically organized. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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