Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE

Saint-André-lez-Lille, France

Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE

Saint-André-lez-Lille, France
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Pelfrene A.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE | Cave M.R.,British Geological Survey | Wragg J.,British Geological Survey | Douay F.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2017

An investigation for assessing pulmonary bioaccessibility of metals from reference materials is presented using simulated lung fluids. The objective of this paper was to contribute to an enhanced understanding of airborne particulate matter and its toxic potential following inhalation. A large set of metallic elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) was investigated using three lung fluids (phosphate-buffered saline, Gamble’s solution and artificial lysosomal fluid) on three standard reference materials representing different types of particle sources. Composition of the leaching solution and four solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratios were tested. The results showed that bioaccessibility was speciation-(i.e., distribution) and element-dependent, with percentages varying from 0.04% for Pb to 86.0% for Cd. The higher extraction of metallic elements was obtained with the artificial lysosomal fluid, in which a relative stability of bioaccessibility was observed in a large range of S/L ratios from 1/1000 to 1/10,000. For further investigations, it is suggested that this method be used to assess lung bioaccessibility of metals from smelter-impacted dusts. © 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | University of the Littoral Opal Coast, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2016

Aided phytostabilisation using trees and fly ashes is a promising technique which has shown its effectiveness in the management of highly metal-contaminated soils. However, this success is generally established based on topsoil physicochemical analysis and short-term experiments. This paper focuses on the long-term effects of the afforestation and two fly ashes (silico-aluminous and sulfo-calcic called FA1 and FA2, respectively) by assessing the integrity of fly ashes 10 years after their incorporation into the soil as well as the vertical distribution of the physicochemical parameters and trace elements (TEs) in the amended soils (F1 and F2) in comparison with a non-amended soil (R). Ten years after the soil treatment, the particle size distribution analysis between fly ashes and their corresponding masses (fly ash + soil particles) showed a loss or an agglomeration of finer particles. This evolution matches with the appearance of gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) in FA2m instead of anhydrite (CaSO4), which is the major compound of FA2. This finding corresponds well with the dissolution and the lixiviation of Ca, S and P included in FA2 along the F2 soil profile, generating an accumulation of these elements at 30 cm depth. However, no variation of TE contamination was found between 0 and 25 cm depth in F2 soil except for Cd. Conversely, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg enrichment was observed at 25 cm depth in the F1 soil, whereas no enrichment was observed for As. The fly ashes studied, and notably FA2, were able to reduce Cd, Pb and Zn availability in soil and this capacity persists over the time despite their structural and chemical changes.


PubMed | Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE and British Geological Survey
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health | Year: 2017

An investigation for assessing pulmonary bioaccessibility of metals from reference materials is presented using simulated lung fluids. The objective of this paper was to contribute to an enhanced understanding of airborne particulate matter and its toxic potential following inhalation. A large set of metallic elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) was investigated using three lung fluids (phosphate-buffered saline, Gambles solution and artificial lysosomal fluid) on three standard reference materials representing different types of particle sources. Composition of the leaching solution and four solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratios were tested. The results showed that bioaccessibility was speciation- (i.e., distribution) and element-dependent, with percentages varying from 0.04% for Pb to 86.0% for Cd. The higher extraction of metallic elements was obtained with the artificial lysosomal fluid, in which a relative stability of bioaccessibility was observed in a large range of S/L ratios from 1/1000 to 1/10,000. For further investigations, it is suggested that this method be used to assess lung bioaccessibility of metals from smelter-impacted dusts.


Waterlot C.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et Geo Environnement LGCgE | Goulas A.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et Geo Environnement LGCgE | Goulas A.,Lille 2 University of Health and Law
Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2016

Effects of temperature on the reversed-phase chromatographic behavior of PAHs were investigated on three columns. The first was the recent C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm) packed with 5 μm core-shell particles while the others were more conventional C18 columns (250 mm × 4.6 mm) packed with fully porous particles. Among the 16 PAHs studied, special attention has been paid to two pairs of PAHs, fluorene/acenaphthene and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene, which often present coeluting problems. Due to the low surface area of the core-shell particles, lowest retention time of each PAH was highlighted and effects of the temperature on the separation of PAHs were negligible in regard to those using columns packed with fully porous particles. For each PAH studied, it was demonstrated that peaks were symmetrical and may be considered as Gaussian peaks when the column packed with core-shell particle was employed. In the best condition, the separation of PAHs was conducted at 16°C under very low pressure values (670-950 psi = 46-65 bars). Depending on PAHs, the limit of detection ranged from 0.88 to 9.16 μg L-1. Analysis of spiked acetonitrile samples with PAHs at 10 and 50 μg L-1 and tap water at 10 μg L-1 gave very good recoveries (94%-109.3%) and high precision (1.1%-3.5%). © 2016 Christophe Waterlot and Anaïs Goulas.


Goulas A.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et Geo Environnement LGCgE | Louvel B.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et Geo Environnement LGCgE | Waterlot C.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et Geo Environnement LGCgE
Canadian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

An ultrafast liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection has been optimized for the determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a recent Kinetex-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm). This column has been recently packed with a new brand of porous shell particles with an average particle size of 5 μm to separate various compounds by liquid chromatography, operating at very low pressure. After optimization of the analytical procedure, the separation of the 15 PAHs in spiked tap water samples was achieved without coeluted products in 21.5 min at 16 °C using an aqueous/acetonitrile mobile phase under gradient concentrations with a very low flow rate (0.7-1.0 mL min-1) and low pressure values (870-1590 psi = 60-110 bar), all of these conditions being interesting from an economic point of view. The synchronization of wavelength time changing and the elution time of each compound was performed to avoid baseline deviation. The validation of the whole of the experimental procedure was conducted taking into consideration the following parameters: calibration curve, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, sensitivity, precision, and repeatability of the retention time for each PAH. The proposed analytical procedure presented adequate linearity over a concentration range from 0.025 to 10 μg L-1 with a correlation coefficient better than 0.9980. The repeatability (relative standard deviation in percentage, n = 5) of the retention time for the different PAHs investigated ranged from 0.03% to 0.34% and the limit of detection was under 0.6 μg L-1 for most PAHs (excepted for indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, limit of detection = 1.71 μg L-1). The intraday and interday precisions were below 4%. The recovery of PAH in spiked tap water samples was variable, ranging from 96% to 109%, with relative standard deviation between 0.2% and 4.8%, depending on PAHs and their concentration levels. © 2015 Published by NRC Research Press.


Alhaj Hasan O.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et Geo Environnement LGCgE | Defer D.,University of Artois | Shahrour I.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et Geo Environnement LGCgE
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2014

This paper proposes a new method for an optimal control of the heating system at the building scale. This control is a new approach of energy planning that aims to decrease the heating consumption/expenses over a defined prediction horizon while respecting the occupants' thermal comfort. It employs a simplified building thermal model to simulate the building thermal behavior taking into consideration the weather predictions. This approach is based on the application of Monte Carlo method, i.e., a random generator for the heating system scenarios. The aim is to determine the optimal heating plan for the prediction horizon that fulfills the constraints regarding the thermal comfort of occupants and the minimization of the energy consumption/expenses together with achieving a load shedding. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Waterlot C.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE | Douay F.,Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Emissions from primary lead smelters have been recognized as one of the mainly factor which has contributed to the contamination of soils by metals. Less attention has been paid to volatile metalloids such as arsenic (As) which accompanies lead (Pb) smelting activities. One of the objectives of this study was to determine the As concentrations in various extracting solutions using a collection of urban soils located no far away from two former Pb and zinc plants in the North of France. The procedure for the determination of As, AsIII, and AsV with hydride vapor generator atomic absorption spectrometry was described in details. Pseudo-total concentrations of As in the studied soils ranged from 5.3 to 65.9 mg kg−1. Good correlations were found between As and lead, zinc, and cadmium concentrations in soils. These depended on the soil uses and the soil distance from the source of contamination. Because the form of As may pose a health risk to human population, its speciation was determined in each urban top soils. Very good correlations were found between AsIII and AsV versus As concentrations in soils studied, but the results did no permit to establish a relation between the location of soils and their uses. In contrast, it was shown that the highest mobility factor and lowest partitioning index values were related to the location. The mobilty of As depended on the assimilated phosphorus (P), carbonate contents, and pH. The percentages of the water-extractable As concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 % of the As concentrations in soils. Very good positive correlations between water-extractable AsIII and AsV versus water-extractable As concentrations were obtained. It was shown that the water-extractable AsIII concentrations depended on the soil uses. The results revealed that soils for which the As was the most mobile presented the highest water-extractable As concentrations. Principal component analysis indicated that mechanisms related to the release of As depended on the physico-chemical parameters of the soils, particularly on the assimilated P, organic matter, and/or iron oxides/hydroxides contents. Finally, the glasshouse experiments using ryegrass as plant model and three soils with similar physico-chemical parameters with regard to the PCA analysis showed that the water extracting solution could be a good indicator to evaluate the As phytoavailability. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE and Neo Eco Recycling
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2015

Biochars are products that are rich in carbon obtained by pyrolysis processes that consist in introducing a biomass (such as wood or manure) in a closed container and heating it with little or no available air. This paper reports the impacts of pyrolysis parameters on biochar characteristics. A preliminary examination of the scientific literature revealed that the type of feedstock, the temperature, the heating rate and the gas flow were the major parameters influencing the biochar characteristics. This review highlights the multitude of biochars that can be made and shows the importance of characterizing them before their use in soils. Then we assess how the input of biochars in soils can affect soil parameters. A review of the literature showed modifications on: i) the physical properties of soils (i.e. the modification in soil structure and water retention), ii) the chemical properties of soils (i.e. the modification of pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrient availability, the organic matter content) and iii) the biological properties (i.e. the changes in microbial and faunal communities). All these modifications can lead to an increase in crop productivity, which confirms the value of biochars as a soil amendment. Moreover, biochars can also provide an advantage for soil remediation. Indeed, biochars efficiently reduce the bioavailability of organic and inorganic pollutants. In addition, this review focuses on a specific plant that can be used to produce biochars: Miscanthus, a non-wood rhizomatous C4 perennial grass. Miscanthus presents advantages for biochar production due to: i) its lignocellulosic content, ii) its silicon content, which can mitigate environmental stresses (notably for plants grown on contaminated sites) and iii) the greater surface area of the Miscanthus biochars compared to the biochars produced with other feedstock.


PubMed | Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015

Emissions from primary lead smelters have been recognized as one of the mainly factor which has contributed to the contamination of soils by metals. Less attention has been paid to volatile metalloids such as arsenic (As) which accompanies lead (Pb) smelting activities. One of the objectives of this study was to determine the As concentrations in various extracting solutions using a collection of urban soils located no far away from two former Pb and zinc plants in the North of France. The procedure for the determination of As, As(III), and As(V) with hydride vapor generator atomic absorption spectrometry was described in details. Pseudo-total concentrations of As in the studied soils ranged from 5.3 to 65.9 mg kg(-1). Good correlations were found between As and lead, zinc, and cadmium concentrations in soils. These depended on the soil uses and the soil distance from the source of contamination. Because the form of As may pose a health risk to human population, its speciation was determined in each urban top soils. Very good correlations were found between As(III) and As(V) versus As concentrations in soils studied, but the results did no permit to establish a relation between the location of soils and their uses. In contrast, it was shown that the highest mobility factor and lowest partitioning index values were related to the location. The mobilty of As depended on the assimilated phosphorus (P), carbonate contents, and pH. The percentages of the water-extractable As concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 3.0% of the As concentrations in soils. Very good positive correlations between water-extractable As(III) and As(V) versus water-extractable As concentrations were obtained. It was shown that the water-extractable As(III) concentrations depended on the soil uses. The results revealed that soils for which the As was the most mobile presented the highest water-extractable As concentrations. Principal component analysis indicated that mechanisms related to the release of As depended on the physico-chemical parameters of the soils, particularly on the assimilated P, organic matter, and/or iron oxides/hydroxides contents. Finally, the glasshouse experiments using ryegrass as plant model and three soils with similar physico-chemical parameters with regard to the PCA analysis showed that the water extracting solution could be a good indicator to evaluate the As phytoavailability.


PubMed | Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo Environnement LGCgE
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental geochemistry and health | Year: 2015

Metal contamination of urban soils and homegrown vegetables has caused major concern. Some studies showed that cadmium (Cd) was among the most significant hazards in kitchen garden soils and prolonged exposure to this metal could cause deleterious health effects in humans. In general, most risk assessment procedures are based on total concentrations of metals in vegetables. The present study assesses human bioaccessibility of Cd in vegetables cultivated in smelter-impacted kitchen garden soils. Seven vegetables (radish, lettuce, French bean, carrot, leek, tomato, and potato) were considered. Using the UBM protocol (unified BARGE bioaccessibility method), the bioaccessibility of Cd was measured in raw/cooked vegetables. A considerable amount of Cd was mobilized from raw vegetables during the digestion process (on average 85% in the gastric phase and 69% in the gastrointestinal phase), which could be attributed to a high uptake of Cd during the growth of the vegetables. Most Cd is accumulated in the vacuoles of plant cells, except what is absorbed by the cell wall, allowing Cd to be released from plant tissues under moderate conditions. Cooking by the steaming process generally increased the bioaccessibility of Cd in French bean, carrot, and leek. For potato, few or no significant differences of Cd bioaccessibility were observed after the steaming process, while the frying process strongly decreased bioaccessibility in both phases. The estimation of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables is helpful for human health risk assessment.

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