Time filter

Source Type

Seguin V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Garon D.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Lemauviel-Lavenant S.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Lanier C.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

Background: Improving the hygienic quality of forages for horse nutrition seems to be a reasonable target for decreasing the prevalence of pulmonary diseases. The aim of the experiment was to study the effects of different agricultural practices on the main aero-allergens contained in forages, including breathable dust, fungi, mycotoxins and pollens. Results: Results showed that the late harvest of hay, a second crop or a haylage production provides a good alternative to increase hygienic quality by reducing fungi contamination and breathable dust content. Barn drying of hay, while having no effect on breathable dust, similarly reduced fungi contamination. In contrast, when hay was harvested at a lower dry mass content (750 g DM kg -1 versus 850 g DM kg -1), both breathable dust and fungi contaminations were increased, which could at least be reversed by adding propionic acid just before baling. Zearalenone was detected in different hays, and even in one case, in breathable dust. Conclusion: Overall, our data suggest that different approaches can be used to increase forage hygienic quality for horse feeding and thus reduce their exposure to factors involved in equine pulmonary disease. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Seguin V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lemauviel-Lavenant S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Garon D.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Bouchart V.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | And 6 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

It is now widely recognized that an environmental approach to the prevention of equine Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO), resulting from recurrent exposure to dust and aeroallergens, requires closer consideration. The aims of this study were to quantify the dust and aeroallergens in hays in order to characterize the health quality of hay, to identify the most variable parameters and determine which climatic factors and agricultural practices improve the health quality of hay. Hays were experimentally produced from a homogeneous grassland by applying different agricultural practices and rainfall amounts. Treatment effects were evaluated by dust and aeroallergen quantifications and identifications. The highest fungal contamination in airborne particles and dust contamination during late harvest, occurred when hay moisture remained high during (rainfall after cut) or after the making process (baled at 75% DM). Eurotium amstelodami and Eurotium repens were mainly found in all hays, while Aspergillus fumigatus was mostly found in hays showing the highest colony forming units (CFUs). Barn drying increased dust content and haylages produced the lowest level of airborne particles. The highest levels of endotoxins were found in the hay harvested at 75% of dry matter and the hay exposed to a rainfall after cut. The presence of zearalenone was only detected in these two low quality hays. Overall results suggest that better agricultural practices for hay making can be adopted and may be used in combination to significantly improve the health quality of hay, leading to a lower long-term exposure of horses. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Seguin V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Lemauviel-Lavenant S.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Garon D.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Bouchart V.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | And 6 more authors.
Grass and Forage Science | Year: 2010

Pulmonary diseases such as recurrent airway obstruction have become a major concern in the horse industry. Airborne dust, including aeroallergens from forages, is suspected to be the main factor in its aetiology. Hypothesizing that grassland flora could affect hay hygienic quality, and therefore have implications for the respiratory health of horses, we compared five single-species hays (Trifolium repens, Lolium perenne, Alopecurus geniculatus, Poa trivialis and Holcus lanatus). Multi-species hay from Normandy, and different commercial forages (single-species haylage, multi-species haylage, Crau hay and hay from Swiss mixing), chosen to represent current horse forages, were also investigated. Dust, moulds, pollens and endotoxins were different among forage types, while mycotoxins were not detected in any of the forage types. Holcus lanatus hay was the dustiest among the single-species hays but also the least contaminated by moulds. A particular mould profile was associated with each plant species. The four commercial forages appeared to have a better hygienic quality than the multi-species hay. Among commercial forages, the single-species haylage was the least dusty but also the most contaminated by moulds. Overall the results suggest that the hygienic quality of equine forages could be improved by an appropriate choice of grassland species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Pottier D.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Andre V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Rioult J.-P.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Bourreau A.,Bureau dexpertise A. Bourreau | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Pollution Research | Year: 2014

For some years, the degradation of homes by the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans increased. This study described, for the first time, the fungal contamination in homes located in Low-Normandy (France) and damaged by Serpula lacrymans. Wood-decaying fungi, airborne molds, fungal species growing on building materials were investigated by cultural and molecular methods. Mycotoxins in the air were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS and the mutagenicity of fungal aerosols was also evaluated using the Ames test. The results showed that Serpula lacrymans was detected in the air for one third of homes with sometimes the co-occurrence of other ligninolytic basidiomycetes species like Donkioporia expansa. Various molds in the air and on materials (117 and 103 species, respectively) were also identified indicating the complexity of indoor mycoflora. Certain recurrent species like Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium fellutanum were observed both on building materials and in the air. The presence of cellulolytic molds in fungal aerosols and on building materials could be used as an indicator of home degradation. Airborne culturable fungal levels were measured up to 5.8x105 Colony Forming Units (CFU) per cubic meter of the air (CFU/m3) depending on the home. Fungal concentrations also depended on the type of collector (filter or liquid) and were significantly correlated with the median of particles between 2-15 μm in size. Two mycotoxins (alternariol and/or ochratoxin A) were observed in 4 homes but no mutagenic activity was found. © Author(s) 2014.


Lanier C.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Richard E.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Heutte N.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Picquet R.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg-1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 102 to 6.2 × 105 cfu m-3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons (P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season (P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 103 to 1.7 106 cfu m-3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons (P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m-3, 1.09 μg m-3 and 2.97 μg m-3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Baldi I.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Baldi I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Baldi I.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center | Lebailly P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2014

Physical contact with branches, leaves, fruit or vegetables in previously treated crops is responsible for the transfer of pesticides to the worker's skin in agricultural tasks such as harvesting, pruning, thinning, cutting or sorting. Few studies have documented workers' exposure during re-entry in vineyards. In the PESTEXPO study, we described levels of exposure and analyzed their determinants during re-entry and harvesting in vineyards in the Bordeaux area, France. Between 2002 and 2007, volunteers performing re-entry tasks (N=46 days) or harvesting (N=48 days) after dithiocarbamate or folpet treatment were observed. Detailed information on the tasks was collected and dermal contamination was assessed using patches placed on the skin and hand-washing at the end of each working phase. Daily median contamination was 1 967.7μl of mixture during re-entry (90e percentile: 5 045.3μl) and 18.7μl during harvesting (90e percentile: 911.4μl). The type of task was the parameter found to be the most strongly associated with contamination. For re-entry, the highest contaminations were observed during raising of wires and cutting of branches. During the harvest, the contamination was maximal for grape-picking. The delay since the last treatment and the rate of active ingredient per hectare played a role, together with other factors such as meteorological factors, crop and farm characteristics, gloves and clothes. Our results underline the necessity to take into account exposures during re-entry and harvest when considering pesticide exposure, both for epidemiological research and preventive action. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Lanier C.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Andre V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Seguin V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Heutte N.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

Agricultural occupations associated with animal breeding and the processing of animal materials in confinement systems could potentially lead to bioaerosol exposures. Moulds and mycotoxins could be constituents of bioaerosols and should be studied because of their possible involvement in respiratory diseases and cancers. In order to characterize the fungal contamination of the indoor air in a dairy barn, bioaerosols were collected during 20 days in a cattle farm located in Normandy (France). Mycobiota, mycotoxins and the mutagenicity of bioaerosols were studied. The toxigenic ability of Aspergillus flavus group and Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was also evaluated in vitro. The prevalent airborne moulds were from the following potentially toxigenic species: Aspergillus flavus group, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, and the allergenic species Ulocladium chartarum, Cladosporium cladosporioides. In comparison with harvesting, grain handling or broiler breeding, the concentrations of viable moulds were lower in the cattle shed. Seasonal variations in levels of several species were also observed. This study revealed that aflatoxins were detected in bioaerosols and, for the first time, showed that farmers are possibly exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum during routine barn work. Moreover, the finding of mutagenicity from bioaerosols needs further investigations on bioaerosol composition.


Baldi I.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Baldi I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Baldi I.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center | Lebailly P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Exposure assessment is a critical point for epidemiological studies on pesticide health effects. PESTEXPO study provides data on levels of exposure and their determinants in real conditions of pesticide use. We described levels of exposure in vineyards during treatment tasks (mixing, spraying and cleaning) and we analysed their determinants. Sixty-seven operators using dithiocarbamates or folpet were observed. Detailed information on the tasks (general conditions, operator, farm and equipment characteristics) were collected and dermal contamination was measured, using patches placed onto the skin on eleven body parts, and washing the hands at the end of each phase. The spraying phase represented roughly half of the contamination, whereas mixing and equipment cleaning accounted for 30% and 20% of the contamination, respectively. The main determinants of exposure were the number of phases, the characteristics of the equipment, the educational level of the operator and his status (farm-worker or-owner) and the general characteristics of the vines. Algorithms were built to estimate daily external contamination, according to these characteristics during mixing, spraying or equipment cleaning. With additional information of frequency and duration of use, they will enable to develop exposure indices usable in epidemiological studies on farmers health. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Oden E.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | Martenot C.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | Berthaux M.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | Travaille E.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

French oyster farming has been experiencing severe mortalities since 2008 in Crassostrea gigas spat and juveniles mainly during the summer months. This recent phenomenon can be explained by the involvement of many factors including pathogenic agents such as the Ostreid Herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1). From July 2008 to September 2010, 424 oyster samples received from French oyster farmers were tested to follow the concentration of OsHV-1 by quantitative real-time PCR. Comparisons of OsHV-1 loads were also made according to oyster age, ploidy, origin (hatchery-bred or wild-collected) and sample status (healthy or dying).The survey revealed that high viral loads detected in spat and juvenile oyster tissues were associated with summer mortality occurrence. No significant differences were observed in pathogen detection in relation to oyster ploidy and origin. Finally, this study allowed us to define a viral load threshold of 8.8×103 of OsHV-1 DNA per mg of tissue, which can be useful to oyster farmers in evaluating mortality risk during the different stages of oyster handling. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Martenot C.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | Oden E.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | Travaille E.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | Malas J.-P.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe | Houssin M.,Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe
Virus Research | Year: 2011

Since summer 2008, high mortality rates of young Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas have been recorded in association with the detection of the Ostreid Herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1). A new variant called μVar has been recently described, characterized mainly by 12 consecutive deletions followed by one deletion of an adenine in the C region. The purpose of this study is to characterize the genotype (variants or OsHV-1 reference) of 300 positive samples of C. gigas analyzed between July 2008 and July 2010 collected along the French, Jersey, and Irish coasts. Samples were quantified by TaqMan ® PCR, amplified with conventional PCR, targeting the area of the deletion, and then sequenced. Eighty-seven percent of the samples were characterized and the OsHV-1 μVar was detected in 257 oyster samples. The genotype OsHV-1 reference was never detected during the 25 months of the present survey. Thirty-eight samples could not be determined and the majority of them had a low viral load. A novel genotype containing only 9 consecutive deletions named OsHV-1 μVar Δ9 was found in 5 samples. These observations indicate the emergence of different OsHV-1 variants. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Loading Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe collaborators
Loading Laboratoire Departemental Frank Duncombe collaborators