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Bieupoude P.,Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie dEnergie LESEE | Azoumah Y.,Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie dEnergie LESEE | Neveu P.,CNRS PROMES
International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics | Year: 2012

Flow systems most often present thermal, mechanical and chemical losses due to irreversibility during the flowing fluid transport. These losses strongly impact both their energy performances and the flowing fluid quality. In this paper, two effective, drinking water and irrigation, tree-shaped networks (from the fluid quality and energy performance points of view) are constructed by using the constructal approach coupled with the exergy destruction minimization method. It is shown that in the construction of tree-shaped network for water distribution, the method of exergy destruction minimization is equivalent to minimizing mechanical irreversibility (this is equivalent to pumping power) under a water quality constraint. For both phenomena occurring in the network (energy consumption and the fluid quality degradation), this study offers new interesting routes for optimizing the system either by the exergy destruction minimization (in that case, both irreversible processes are taken into account in the design procedure) or by minimizing one of the two irreversible processes, the other being taken into account as the design constraint. The originality of the method relies on the introduction of the environmental protection through the control of the flowing fluid quality. This paper shows that, for the performance improvement of a water distribution network, it is important to focus on the design of the network rather than enhancing only the transport properties. Note finally that the focus on the quality in flow systems is a crucial approach in environmental engineering such as drinking water distribution systems or chemical fluids transfer systems. The approach presented in this paper should be seen as an introduction to reactive flow systems designing by constructal approach. © 2012 WIT Press. Source


Azoumah Y.,Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie dEnergie LESEE | Yamegueu D.,Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie dEnergie LESEE | Ginies P.,Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie dEnergie LESEE | Coulibaly Y.,Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie dEnergie LESEE | Girard P.,Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie dEnergie LESEE
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. Electrification rate of sub-Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However, this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy-energy" concept of hybrid solar PV/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is performed in this paper. This concept is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. For landlocked countries like Burkina Faso, this concept could help them reducing their electricity bill (then their fuel consumption) and accelerate their rural and peri-urban electrification coverage. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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