Dervilly-Pinel G.,Laboratoire drtude des Rsidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments LABERCA |
Weigel S.,Wageningen University |
Lommen A.,Laboratoire drtude des Rsidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments LABERCA |
Chereau S.,Laboratoire drtude des Rsidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments LABERCA |
And 5 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011
Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of "cocktails" composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17β-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17β-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for discriminating anabolic treated animals from control ones. Such an approach may therefore open a new way for the screening of anabolic steroid administration through targeted monitoring of relevant biomarkers highlighted as a result of the metabolomics study. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.