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Dreuil-lès-Amiens, France

Ghamlouch H.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Ouled-Haddou H.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Damaj G.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Royer B.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), the most common human leukemia, is characterized by predominantly non-dividing malignant mature CD5+ B lymphocytes with an apoptosis defect. Various microenvironmental stimuli confer a growth advantage on these leukemic cells and extend their survival in vivo. Nevertheless, when cultured in vitro, CLL B-cells rapidly die from apoptosis. Certain cytokines may extend the survival capacity of CLL B-cells in vitro and individual anti-apoptotic effects of several cytokines have been reported. The potential cumulative effect of such cytokines has not been studied. We therefore investigated the effects on CLL B-cells survival in vitro of humoral factors, polyclonal lymphocyte activators and a combination of cytokines known for their anti-apoptotic effects. Purified CLL B-cells were cultured in the presence or absence of various soluble molecules and the leukemic cell response was assessed in terms of viability. Apoptotic cell death was detected by flow cytometry using annexinV and 7-amino-actinomycin. The survival of CLL B-cells in vitro was highly variable. When tested separately, cytokines (IL-2, -6, -10, -12, -15, -21, BAFF and APRIL) improved CLL B cell survival moderately; in combination, they significantly enhanced survival of these cells, even up to 7 days of culture. We also report that humoral factors from autologous serum are important for survival of these malignant cells. Our findings support the concept that the CLL microenvironment is critical and suggest that soluble factors may contribute directly to the prolonged survival of CLL B-cells. Therefore, the combination of cytokines we describe as providing strong resistance to apoptosis in vitro might be used to improve the treatment of CLL. © 2013 Ghamlouch et al. Source


Rouge P.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Dassonville-Klimpt A.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Cezard C.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Boudesocque S.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Chemistry - Reims | And 12 more authors.
ChemPlusChem | Year: 2012

Iron chelators, through their capacity to modulate the iron concentration in cells, are promising molecules for cancer chemotherapy. Chelators with high lipophilicity easily enter into cells and deplete the iron intracellular pool. Consequently, iron-dependent enzymes, such as ribonucleotide reductase, which is over-expressed in cancer cells, become nonfunctional. A series of calix[4]arene derivatives substituted at the lower rim by ICL670, a strong Fe III chelator, have been synthesized. Physicochemical properties and antiproliferative, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis effects of two calix[4]arenes mono-(5a) or disubstituted (5b) with ICL670 have been studied. These compounds form metal complexes in a ratio of one to two ligands per Fe III atom as shown by combined analyses of the protometric titration curves and ESIMS spectra. The grafting of an ICL670 group on a calix[4]arene core does not significantly alter the acid-base properties, but improves the iron-chelating and lipophilicity properties. The best antiproliferative and antiangiogenic results were obtained with calix[4]arene ligand 5a, which possesses the highest corresponding properties. Analyses of molecular dynamics simulations performed on the two calix[4]arenes provide three-dimensional structures of the complexes and proved 5a to be the most stable upon complexation. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Ghamlouch H.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Ouled-Haddou H.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Guyart A.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Regnier A.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | And 8 more authors.
Immunology and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

In this study, we investigated the capacity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells to undergo terminal differentiation into Ig-secreting plasma cells in T cell-independent and T cell-dependent responses. We used a two-step model involving stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and CD40L, together with cytokines (PMA/c and CD40L/c), for 7 days. We describe immunophenotypic modifications, changes in the levels of mRNA and protein for transcription factors and morphological and functional events occurring during the differentiation of CLL B cells into antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). The induction of differentiation differed significantly between the CD40L/c and PMA/c culture systems. The PMA/c culture system allowed CLL B cells to differentiate into IgM-secreting cells with an immunophenotype and molecular profile resembling those of preplasmablasts. By contrast, CD40L/c-stimulated cells had a phenotype and morphology similar to those of activated B cells and resembling those of the CLL B cells residing in the lymph node and bone marrow. These data suggest that the CLL B cells are not frozen permanently at a stage of differentiation and are able to differentiate into ASCs as appropriate stimulation are provided. The data presented here raise questions about the molecular processes and stimulation required for CLL B-cell differentiation and about the inability of CD40 ligand to induce differentiation of the CLL B cells. © 2014 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc. Source


Ouled-Haddou H.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Ghamlouch H.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Regnier A.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Trudel S.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | And 6 more authors.
Immunology | Year: 2014

In B cells, B-cell receptor (BCR) immunoglobulin revision is a common route for modifying unwanted antibody specificities via a mechanism called VH replacement. This in vivo process, mostly affecting heavy-chain rearrangement, involves the replacement of all or part of a previously rearranged IGHV gene with another germline IGHV gene located upstream. Two different mechanisms of IGHV replacement have been reported: type 1, involving the recombination activating genes complex and requiring a framework region 3 internal recombination signal; and type 2, involving an unidentified mechanism different from that of type 1. In the case of light-chain loci, BCR immunoglobulin editing ensures that a second V-J rearrangement occurs. This helps to maintain tolerance, by generating a novel BCR with a new antigenic specificity. We report that human B cells can, surprisingly, undergo type 2 replacement associated with κ light-chain rearrangements. The de novo IGKV-IGKJ products result from the partial replacement of a previously rearranged IGKV gene by a new germline IGKV gene, in-frame and without deletion or addition of nucleotides. There are wrcy/rgyw motifs at the 'IGKV donor-IGKV recipient chimera junction' as described for type 2 IGHV replacement, but activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression was not detected. This unusual mechanism of homologous recombination seems to be a variant of gene conversion-like recombination, which does not require AID. The recombination phenomenon described here provides new insight into immunoglobulin locus recombination and BCR immunoglobulin repertoire diversity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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