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Villefranche-sur-Mer, France

Le Moullac G.,Center du Pacifique | Tiapari J.,Center du Pacifique | Teissier H.,Center du Pacifique | Martinez E.,Laboratoire Doceanographie Of Villefranche | Cochard J.-C.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea
Aquaculture International | Year: 2012

The growth and reproductive cycle of cultured black-lipped pearl oysters, Pinctada margaritifera (L.), were studied in the Gambier Islands (134°52′ W, 23°07′ S) from September 2002 to August 2003. Temperatures were recorded throughout the year, revealing seasonal temperature variations between 22.3 and 27.8°C. The mean annual chlorophyll a value, as computed from satellite data, was 0.188 ± 0.075 μg L -1. To study growth and reproduction, 720 two-year-old individuals were ear hung on long-lines suspended at a depth of 7 m. Samples were taken twice a month to obtain the following measurements: shell height; wet weight of flesh and total oyster; dry weight of adductor muscle, mantle and visceral mass; and glycogen content. Gonad development was also studied by histology on parallel samples. Growth was relatively fast during the first 6 months of the study: average shell height increased from 89.1 ± 9.1 to 119.7 ± 10.8 mm and total weight from 93.4 ± 24.5 to 155.1 ± 33.6 g, between September and the end of March. Subsequently, from April to August, no significant growth was observed for shell and flesh, while the muscle weight decreased significantly. Condition index (CI), defined as the ratio of wet weight of the visceral mass to shell weight, and histological changes in the gonad revealed 3 significant reproductive events of different intensities. The analysis of correlations revealed a specific effect of the chlorophyll a concentration on the growth of shell and soma, and one of the temperature on tissue glycogen content. This study also showed also that CI could be an efficient indicator of reproductive events in pearl oyster. It thus appears that the development of gonads goes on throughout the year in the Gambier Islands, without any detectable phase of sexual rest. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Rottgers R.,Institute for Coastal Research | Doxaran D.,Laboratoire Doceanographie Of Villefranche | Dupouy C.,CNRS Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO) | Dupouy C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Optics Express | Year: 2016

The accurate determination of light absorption coefficients of particles in water, especially in very oligotrophic oceanic areas, is still a challenging task. Concentrating aquatic particles on a glass fiber filter and using the Quantitative Filter Technique (QFT) is a common practice. Its routine application is limited by the necessary use of high performance spectrophotometers, distinct problems induced by the strong scattering of the filters and artifacts induced by freezing and storing samples. Measurements of the sample inside a large integrating sphere reduce scattering effects and direct field measurements avoid artifacts due to sample preservation. A small, portable, Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter setup (QFT-ICAM) is presented, that allows rapid measurements of a sample filter. The measurement technique takes into account artifacts due to chlorophyll-a fluorescence. The QFT-ICAM is shown to be highly comparable to similar measurements in laboratory spectrophotometers, in terms of accuracy, precision, and path length amplification effects. No spectral artifacts were observed when compared to measurement of samples in suspension, whereas freezing and storing of sample filters induced small losses of water-soluble pigments (probably phycoerythrins). Remaining problems in determining the particulate absorption coefficient with the QFT-ICAM are strong sample-to-sample variations of the path length amplification, as well as fluorescence by pigments that is emitted in a different spectral region than that of chlorophyll-a. ©2015 Optical Society of America.

Gilerson A.,City University of New York | Ibrahim A.,City University of New York | Harmel T.,Laboratoire Doceanographie Of Villefranche | Tonizzo A.,City University of New York | Ahmed S.,City University of New York
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

The next generation of Ocean Color satellite sensors (PACE, NASA) will have polarization sensitive channels which will make possible to continue the time series of polarization acquisitions from space initiated by the French missions POLDER/PARASOL (CNES) and can be used to acquire additional information on ocean water constituents. The water attenuation coefficient is not retrievable by the exclusive use of the unpolarized measurements of the water-leaving radiance. However, we recently showed that the underwater degree of linear polarization (DoLP) can be fairly related to the attenuation/absorption ratio (c/a) which enables us to achieve retrievals of the absorption and attenuation coefficients from measurements of the Stokes components of the upwelling underwater light field. The relationship between the DoLP and the attenuation/absorption (c/a) ratio is investigated based on vector radiative transfer simulations of the underwater polarized light field for several wavelengths in the visible part of the spectrum, for a complete set of viewing geometries and for varying water compositions with water constituents include phytoplankton, non-algal particles and CDOM. It is shown that the relationship that exists between DoLP and c/a ratio has an excellent correlation for wide range of different viewing and Sun's geometries opening the possibility for air or space borne DoLP measurements of the ocean and therefore retrieval of additional water optical properties. © 2012 SPIE.

Siegel D.A.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Behrenfeld M.J.,Oregon State University | Maritorena S.,University of California at Santa Barbara | McClain C.R.,NASA | And 22 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2013

Photosynthetic production of organic matter by microscopic oceanic phytoplankton fuels ocean ecosystems and contributes roughly half of the Earth's net primary production. For 13. years, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission provided the first consistent, synoptic observations of global ocean ecosystems. Changes in the surface chlorophyll concentration, the primary biological property retrieved from SeaWiFS, have traditionally been used as a metric for phytoplankton abundance and its distribution largely reflects patterns in vertical nutrient transport. On regional to global scales, chlorophyll concentrations covary with sea surface temperature (SST) because SST changes reflect light and nutrient conditions. However, the ocean may be too complex to be well characterized using a single index such as the chlorophyll concentration. A semi-analytical bio-optical algorithm is used to help interpret regional to global SeaWiFS chlorophyll observations from using three independent, well-validated ocean color data products; the chlorophyll a concentration, absorption by CDM and particulate backscattering. First, we show that observed long-term, global-scale trends in standard chlorophyll retrievals are likely compromised by coincident changes in CDM. Second, we partition the chlorophyll signal into a component due to phytoplankton biomass changes and a component caused by physiological adjustments in intracellular chlorophyll concentrations to changes in mixed layer light levels. We show that biomass changes dominate chlorophyll signals for the high latitude seas and where persistent vertical upwelling is known to occur, while physiological processes dominate chlorophyll variability over much of the tropical and subtropical oceans. The SeaWiFS data set demonstrates complexity in the interpretation of changes in regional to global phytoplankton distributions and illustrates limitations for the assessment of phytoplankton dynamics using chlorophyll retrievals alone. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Frouin R.,University of California at San Diego | Loisel H.,Laboratoire dOceanologie et Geosciences | Poteau A.,Laboratoire Doceanographie Of Villefranche
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

The SIMBADA radiometer was designed to check the radiometric calibration of satellite ocean-color sensors and evaluate the atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery. It measures marine reflectance and aerosol optical thickness in 11 spectral bands covering the spectral range 350 to 870 nm. Aerosol optical thickness is obtained by viewing the sun disk and marine reflectance by viewing the ocean surface through a vertical polarizer that minimizes sun glint and reflected skylight. The measurements made by SIMBADA during ACE-Asia (March-April 2001, Japan Sea) and AOPEX (July-August 2004, Mediterranean Sea) are compared with those made concomitantly by other ocean radiometers and sun photometers, i.e., MER, PRR, SPMR, Trios, TSRB, and BOUSSOLE instruments for marine reflectance and CIMEL and Microtops for aerosol optical thickness. Agreement is generally good between the various measurements or estimates. The SIMBADA aerosol optical thickness is within ±0.02 of the values obtained by other sun photometers. The SIMBADA marine reflectance, after correction for bi-directional effects (Q factor), does not exhibit biases when compared with estimates by other radiometers, which generally agree within ±10%. In some cases larger discrepancies exist, and they are largely explained by differences in solar irradiance. More accurate SIMBADA estimates may be obtained by improving the radiometric calibration, the correction for angular geometry and water body polarization, the calculation of incident solar irradiance, and the selection of data minimally affected by sky reflection. © 2010 SPIE.

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